Interior Design Program Standard

The approved program standard for 6-semester Interior Design Programs approved by the Ministry of Education and Training (MCU Code 61833) for delivery by Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology

College Standards and Accreditation Council, April 1996

© 1996 Ontario Ministry of Education and Training, College Standards and Accreditation Council


Acknowledgments

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction


  2. Vocational Standard


  3. Generic Skills Standard


  4. General Education Standard


Acknowledgments

CSAC acknowledges with thanks the significant contribution of the many individuals and organizations who participated in the development of this Program Standard. In particular CSAC would like to acknowledge the important roles of

  • Durham College as the lead college for the Interior Design Pilot Project, and Suzanne Lefebvre Warner, Project Coordinator, and Margo Bath-Bartlett, Project Writer, in the development of the vocational standard.

  • Members of the Interior Design Pilot Project Steering Committee in the development of the vocational standard: Linda Bradley (Ministry of Community & Social Services and program graduate); William Brisland (William Brisland Design Inc.); Angela Bourne (Fanshawe College); Jo Anne Dickinson (Algonquin College); Arlene Dougall, NCIDQ representative (Dougall Design); Sara Levine Petroff (B&H Interior Design Inc. and program graduate); Christine Mayhew (Mayhew and Peterson); Patricia Neely-McCurdy (St. Clair College); Alison Parsons (Sheridan College); Micheline Sanitrar, ARIDO representative (Intercede Facility Management Ltd.); Larry Taylor (Niagara College); Sandra Toogood (Humber College); Claude Swolfs ( La Cité collégiale); Andrew Vasilevich, FIDER/IDEC representative (Ryerson Polytechnic University); Peter Watson (Georgian College); Gordon Wells (Algonquin College); and David Winters, IDC representative (Niagara College).

  • The many individuals and organizations who participated in consultations with the pilot project group and CSAC; and the secondees who facilitated the finalizing of the vocational standard, Margaret Francis Dombeck (Centennial College) and Brian Provini (Conestoga College).

  • Members of the CSAC Generic Skills Council who led the development of the generic skills standard, the many individuals and organizations who participated in consultations with the council, and the secondees who participated in the development of the Generic Skills Standard: Sandra Dzakovic (Niagara College), Lynda Graham (Sheridan College), Lynda Harries (Sir Sandford Fleming College), George Koblyk (Mohawk College), Robert Mayrand ( La Cité collégiale), and Dale Shipley (Algonquin College).

  • Members of the CSAC General Education Council who led the development of the general education standard, the many individuals and organizations who participated in consultations with the council, and the secondees who participated in the development of the general education standard: Dick Capling (Mohawk College), Bill Cruden (St. Lawrence College), and Robert Mayrand ( La Cité collégiale).

I. Introduction

This document is the Program Standard for Interior Design Programs (6-semester) Programs delivered by Ontario colleges of applied arts and technology. The program standard applies to all programs approved by the Ministry of Education and Training under MCU code 61833.

College Standards and Accreditation Council (CSAC)

The College Standards and Accreditation Council (CSAC) was established in 1993 by the Government of Ontario with the objectives of bringing a greater degree of consistency to college programming offered across the province, broadening the focus of college programs to ensure graduates have the skills to be flexible and to continue to learn and adapt, and providing public accountability for the quality and relevance of college programs.

CSAC has been given the specific authority to define credentials for, develop standards for, and accredit publicly funded programs at colleges of applied arts and technology in Ontario.

CSAC is overseen by a twenty-member Board comprised of an equal number of internal (college) and external stakeholders. The Board reports to the Minister of Education and Training through the Council of Regents.

CSAC Program Standards

Program standards apply to all similar programs offered by colleges across the province. Each program standard for a postsecondary program includes the following elements:

  • Vocational standard (the vocationally specific learning outcomes which apply to the program in question),
  • Generic skills standard (the generic skills learning outcomes which apply to programs of similar length), and
  • General education standard (the requirement for general education courses that applies to postsecondary programs).

Collectively, these elements outline the essential skills and knowledge that a student must reliably demonstrate in order to graduate from the program.

Individual colleges of applied arts and technology offering the program determine the specific program structure, delivery methods, and other curriculum matters to be used in assisting students to achieve the outcomes articulated in the standard. Individual colleges also determine whether additional local learning outcomes will be required to reflect specific local needs and/or interests.

The Expression of CSAC Program Standards as Learning Outcomes

CSAC has been given a mandate to express the vocational and generic skills components of program standards in terms of learning outcomes.

Learning outcomes represent culminating demonstrations of learning and achievement. They are not simply a listing of discrete skills, nor broad statements of knowledge and comprehension. They describe performances that demonstrate that significant learning by graduates of the program has been achieved and verified.

Expressing CSAC standards as learning outcomes ensures consistency in the outcomes for program graduates, while leaving to the discretion of individual colleges curriculum matters such as the specific program structure and delivery methods.

The Presentation of the Learning Outcomes

The learning outcome statement sets out the culminating demonstration of learning and achievement that the student must reliably demonstrate before graduation.

The elements of performance for each outcome define and clarify the level and quality of performance necessary to meet the requirements of the learning outcome. However, it is the performance of the learning outcome itself on which students are evaluated. The elements are indicators of the means by which the student may proceed to satisfactory performance of the learning outcome. The elements do not stand alone but rather in reference to the learning outcome of which they form a part.

In some cases, in order to ensure clarity, an explanation of the outcome is also provided.

The Accreditation of Programs

CSAC has been given the authority to accredit publicly funded college programs. The accreditation decision of the Board is based on the results of system-wide program review undertaken for each program on a regular basis. System-wide program review is undertaken with the objective of determining whether program graduates have achieved the learning outcomes and general education requirement established in a program standard.

The Development of a Program Standard

In establishing CSAC, the Government determined that all postsecondary programs should include vocational skills coupled with a broader set of essential skills. This combination is considered critical to ensuring that college graduates have the skills required to be successful both upon graduation from the college program and throughout their working and personal lives.

A program standard is developed through a broad consultation process involving a range of stakeholders with a direct interest in the program area, including employers, professional associations, universities, secondary schools, and program graduates working in the field, in addition to students, faculty, and administrators at the colleges themselves. It represents a consensus of participating stakeholders on the essential learning that all program graduates should have achieved.

Updating the Program Standard

CSAC will undertake regular reviews of the vocational learning outcomes for this program, as well as a review of the generic skills learning outcomes and the general education requirement, to ensure that the Interior Design Program Standard remains appropriate and relevant to the needs of students and employers across the Province of Ontario. To confirm that this document is the most up-to-date release for this program, contact the Ministry of Education and Training at the address or telephone number indicated in the document entitled College Program Standards – Introduction.



Table of Contents

II. Vocational Standard

All graduates of Interior Design Programs (6-semester) must have achieved the ten vocational learning outcomes listed in the following pages, in addition to achieving the generic skills learning outcomes and meeting the general education requirement.

Preamble

The portrait of the three-year Interior Design graduate, expressed in the vocational learning outcomes, is aligned with the profession's accepted definition of the interior designer's role. This role is defined as using education, experience, and recognized skills to identify, research, and creatively solve problems pertaining to the function and quality of the interior environment, in order to enhance the quality of life and protect the health, safety, and welfare of the public.

The comprehensive nature of the role performances expressed in the learning outcomes will provide a graduate with the foundation required for professional growth in the interior design environment and with the ability to function in a wide variety of employment settings.

Concurrent with the development of this program standard, the standard has been developed for two-year Interior Design graduates. While the two-year graduate will be capable of contributing to each of the phases of the design process, the three-year graduate will be able to execute all phases including implementation of a design project and evaluation of a completed design solution. The three-year graduate will be equipped to function with a considerable measure of autonomy and to carry out role performances at a relatively complex level. However, all entry-level interior designers in industry should initially expect to work under the supervision of senior designers.

The vocational learning outcomes are arranged in chronological order of a design project. This order indicates that a graduate of a three-year Interior Design program will be able to use the design process to solve a design problem by completing the following phases sequentially:

Programming/Analysis
Design Concept
Design Development
Documentation
Implementation
Evaluation

* See glossary


Table of Contents


The Vocational Learning Outcomes

1. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

analyze a client's needs and goals by using research methodology and techniques.

Elements of the Performance

  • Define the design problem
  • Determine spacial adjacency* requirements
  • Determine space, furniture, and equipment requirements
  • Determine space standards through the use of the principles of ergonomics, anthropometrics*, and proxemics*
  • Determine an appropriate design image for the client
  • Assess site and building parameters which may impact on the interior design
  • Produce an accurate drawing which reflects the building and site conditions
  • Assess the project as it relates to the building code, zoning by-laws, fire code, health regulations, environmental issues, and special needs concerns (i.e. physically challenged)
  • Determine the building construction system, the building occupancy, and the building classification

* See glossary

2. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

prepare a design proposal.

Elements of the Performance

  • Communicate to the client the results of the project analysis
  • Prepare preliminary budgets
  • Communicate the proposed design process
  • Prepare contracts toward the establishment of a legal agreement between the designer and a client

* See glossary

3. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

analyze design components by using the creative process.

Elements of the Performance

  • Describe space using design terminology (i.e., design elements*, design principles*, and design theories)

* See glossary

4. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

prepare an appropriate design concept* of three-dimensional form* which meets the criteria of a given design project by using the creative process.

Elements of the Performance

  • Generate and assess various design ideas
  • Apply design principles and elements
  • Apply historical interior design, art history, and architectural knowledge and concepts in the context of current social, cultural, environmental, and economic circumstances
  • Apply current design information by reviewing industry journals; attending design symposia and trade shows; participating in professional design associations; visiting current, significant design projects during and/or after completion; preparing reports which record information collected during field trips (i.e., trade shows, project visits, etc.); and determining the major direction in which interior design moves
  • Develop preliminary sketches
  • Prepare a statement to describe the concept and rationale used in the development of a design solution
  • Prepare preliminary drawings which reflect the concept statement
  • Apply the principles of structure* and current industry standard methods of construction and detailing*
  • Apply basic knowledge of building systems (e.g., design within the constraints of HVAC, electrical, plumbing, sprinklers, conveying systems, communications systems, security and acoustics)
  • Select colours, materials*, finishes, and lighting
  • Select art, accessories, and signage (i.e., logos, directional signs)
  • Apply ethical standards to a design concept (i.e., conserving material resources, respecting human resources and individuals with special needs)
  • assess design solutions against the standards of the public welfare
  • prepare furniture and equipment inventory and incorporate that information into a space plan*
  • finalize (to scale using Imperial and Metric) a space plan* concept (i.e., resolve problems in furniture, lighting concepts, architectural elements, and related design details)

* See glossary

5. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

execute appropriate presentation techniques to communicate the design concept.*

Elements of the Performance

  • Present persuasively the design concept* to secure the client's approval
  • Use clear, concise language to explain the design concept
  • Use a variety of visual presentation aids (which may include perspectives, models, etc.) to communicate the design concept
  • Apply two- and three-dimensional CADD* presentation skills
  • Respond succinctly to impromptu questions and comments
  • Display openness and adaptability to comments and suggestions

* See glossary

6. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

prepare a design which reflects the concept by using current and relevant information.

Elements of the Performance

  • Verify that the design conforms to current industry standards, by-laws, and applicable codes including local building codes and local fire codes to ensure the health, safety, and welfare of the public
  • Determine an appropriate lighting system for a design solution (e.g., research and select lighting systems appropriate to that design; evaluate the performance criteria of lighting systems appropriate to that design; and consult with lighting consultants and electrical engineers)
  • Determine the appropriate use of materials* to meet the functional and aesthetic requirements of a design project (e.g., research product information to select the appropriate materials; analyze the materials for their performance, durability, cost, applications, environmental impact, building code and standards classifications; determine surface treatment and finish appropriate to the design; integrate finishes for joint and millwork*, for floors, walls, ceilings, doors, and windows; determine the appropriate hardware* for the design; apply energy and resource conservation principles to a design by specifying those materials, methods, and systems which will ensure that the design is environmentally friendly)

* See glossary

7. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

communicate to the client the proposed design solution for approval.

Elements of the Performance

  • Prepare a cost estimate to meet a design budget
  • Specify for appropriate furniture, furnishing, and equipment to fulfil functional, aesthetic, health and safety, resource conservation and cost requirements (e.g., determine appropriate furniture (system*, modular, knockdown, custom) to meet its necessary function; select appropriate historical, contemporary, or custom furniture; select products for appropriate construction and finish; and select appropriate furniture to meet power, data, and communication needs)
  • Construct perspectives* and render* using tone*, texture, shade*, and colour
  • Construct precise, accurate two- and three-dimensional design drawings by applying principles of orthographic* projection and paraline drawing* techniques and by utilizing two- and three-dimensional CADD* capabilities

* See glossary

8. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

communicate to the client the proposed design solution for approval.

Elements of the Performance

  • Produce a set of working drawings (using Imperial and Metric) which conforms to industry standard drafting techniques and which contains a site plan*; a demolition plan*; a partition plan; a finishes plan*; a reflected ceiling plan*; a power, data and communications plan*; elevations, sections, and details of partitions; millwork* and architectural fitment plans, sections, details, elevations; schedules including door, window, hardware*, equipment, furniture, lighting and finishes schedules; and a furniture, fitment* and equipment plan*
  • Prepare basic construction specifications* using industry standards* to communicate the specific quality control information necessary to complete the design project
  • Estimate (using Imperial and Metric measurements) the quantities of finishing materials* needed for a design project
  • Prepare documentation needed for the administration of the contract, including documenting drawing revisions; preparing addenda* (such as change orders) to maintain the main contract; and preparing appropriate billing (i.e., time sheets, invoices, certificates of payment)
  • Organize all project information in a retrievable format so that anyone in a design office can easily access that information during and after the design project

* See glossary

9. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

collaborate as part of the management team, as the client's agent, in the implementation of a design project to ensure that the project reflects the design solution.

Elements of the Performance

  • Ensure that drawings are accurate, complete and meet the project schedule by determining drawing formats*; scheduling* the sequencing and completion of the drawings; coordinating information between the designer and other consultants; coordinating information between working drawings and other documents (e.g., specifications*); and adapting to changes, when necessary, in drawing formats and/or scheduling*
  • Use the basic terminology of technical systems to communicate with electrical, mechanical and structural engineers; architects; acoustical, security, lighting, and other consultants; and building and trade contractors
  • Assess the final documents to ensure that the design project complies with all applicable codes and bylaws
  • Prepare furniture, fixture, and equipment specifications* to obtain manufacturers' fixed quotes for costs
  • Determine the role of the designer in the bidding and tendering process for a design project, including preparing tender* documentation; preparing a qualified bidders'* list; preparing instructions to bidders*; preparing the addenda; analyzing open bids and making recommendations; reviewing lists of sub-contractors; assisting clients in the preparation of contractor/owner contracts; and reviewing shop drawings*
  • Prepare a timetable that coordinates the activities required by all participants to complete a given design project on time
  • Determine the need for and the role of all participants (including users, clients, building trades, and other professionals) (e.g., determine the designer's role at project meetings; prepare a set of minutes to record information from a project meeting; behave in a professional manner to encourage individual differences; lead group discussion, when appropriate; negotiate consensus in group discussions; determine where in the design process a client's approval is needed; determine when to conduct site visits and inspections; and determine the possible legal ramifications such as legal responsibility and liability)

* See glossary

10. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

evaluate completed design solutions.

Elements of the Performance

  • Determine the role of the designer, as the client's agent, in the evaluation process
  • Prepare a deficiencies list (that is, damaged materials* and/or missing products and finishes)
  • Prepare a post-occupancy evaluation to assess how well the project has met the client's needs

* See glossary

Note:

  • The learning outcomes have been numbered as a point of reference; numbering does not imply prioritization, sequencing, nor weighting of significance.


Table of Contents

Synopsis of the Vocational Learning Outcomes

The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

  1. analyze a client's needs and goals by using research methodology and techniques.
  2. prepare a design proposal.
  3. analyze design components by using the creative process.
  4. prepare an appropriate design concept* of three-dimensional form* which meets the criteria of a given design project by using the creative process.
  5. execute appropriate presentation techniques to communicate the design concept.*
  6. prepare a design which reflects the concept by using current and relevant information.
  7. communicate to the client the proposed design solution for approval.
  8. prepare documentation needed for the implementation of the design.
  9. collaborate as part of the management team, as the client's agent, in the implementation of a design project to ensure that the project reflects the design solution.
  10. evaluate completed design solutions.

Note:

  • The learning outcomes have been numbered as a point of reference; numbering does not imply prioritization, sequencing, nor weighting of significance.


Table of Contents

Glossary of Terms

Addenda
written or graphic instruments issued prior to the execution of the contract which modify or interpret the bidding documents, including drawings, and specifications by additions, deletions, clarifications or corrections. Addenda become part of the contract documents when the construction contract is executed.

Anthroprometrics
the measurement of the human body with a view to determining its average dimensions.

Bidder
one who submits a bid for a prime contract with the owner, as distinct from a subbidder who submits a bid to a prime bidder. A bidder is not a contractor on a specific project until a contract exists between the owner and her/him.

Building Parameters
any one of a number of restrictions, imposed on the construction of a building or the use of land. may be included in a code or in other documents, e.g., a restrictive covenant; may be statutory or contractual.

CADD
computer aided design and drafting.

Demolition Plan
a plan of a building showing those areas to be destroyed, all or in part.

Design Concept
a visual plan of a space as represented by plans, elevations, renderings, and other drawings.

Design Elements
colour, form, light, pattern, scale, and texture.

Design Principles
balance, contrast and variety, harmony and unity, proportion and rhythm.

Detailing
a term in architecture applied to drawing the small parts into which any structure is divided. It is applied generally to molding or other decorative features and to drawings showing a special feature of construction.

Drawing Formats
the layout and manner in which information on a drawing sheet is presented.

Finishes Plan
(Floor Finishes Plan or Wall Finishes Plan) a plan indicating locations of applied surface treatments to the base building.

Design Concept
a visual plan of a space as represented by plans, elevations, renderings, and other drawings.

Fitments
all elements of fabrication and installation exclusive of building shell – fixed but not built in.

Form
a word often confused with shape. Properly, the form of an object is the combination of all the characteristics that establish its identity. Form not only includes shape, but also aspects such as size, texture, colour, tone, and movement.

Furnishings
objects located within a space that are not fixed to the building shell.

Furniture, Fitment, & Equipment Plan (Layout Plan)
a plan indicating the locations of furniture, fitments, and equipment.

Hardware
metal products used in construction such as bolts, nails, screws (rough hardware); fittings such as catches, hinges, locks (finish hardware).

Industry Standards
including but not limited to
Access Standards – see section 3.7 of the Ontario Building Code
ANSI – American National Standards Institute
ASHRAE – American Society of Hearing, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers
ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials
Canadian Housing code
Canadian Plumbing Code
CSA – Canadian Standards Association
Day Nurseries Act
Day Nurseries Design Guidelines
Hotel Fire Safety Act
ISO 9000
Liquor Act
Measures for Energy Conservation in New Buildings
National Building Code
National Fire Code of Canada
NFPA – National Fire Protection Association
Occupational Health and Safety Act
ULC – Underwriter's Laboratories Inc.

Instructions to Bidders
instructions contained in the bidding requirements for preparing and submitting bids for a construction project.

Materials
items used to construct or cover an object.

Millwork
ready-made products which are manufactured at a wood-planing mill or woodworking plant.

Orthographic Projection
the projection of lines perpendicular to the plane of projection.

Paraline Drawings
a pictorial view of a space or an object which is easily understood since it resembles natural perception – all vertical lines remain vertical, all parallel lines remain parallel, and all lines parallel to XYZ axes can be drawn to scale.

Partition Plan
(Construction Plan) – a plan of a building showing dividing walls within that building.

Perspective
any of the various techniques for rendering three-dimensional objects and depth relationships on a two-dimensional surface.

Power, Data & Communications Plan
(Electrical Location Plan) – a plan indicating locations of electrical and communications supplies.

Principles of Structure
the application of structural theory to ensure that buildings and other structures are built to support all loads and resist all constraining forces that may be reasonably expected to be imposed on them during their expected service life, without hazard to occupants or users and preferably without dangerous or annoying vibrations. In addition, good design requires that this objective be achieved economically.

Proxemics
the theory of personal space as applied to the use of space.

Reflected Ceiling Plan
a plan of a ceiling viewed from above so that it is oriented as the floor plan.

Rendering
a black and white or colour representation of a proposed design, faithfully reproduced. Also referred to as a delineation.

Scheduling
preparing a timetable that coordinates the activities required by all participants to complete a given design project on time.

Shade
the dark area of a figure, object, or scene as a result of the obstruction of a light source.

Shop Drawings
drawing, diagrams, illustrations, schedules, performance charts, brochures, and other data prepared by the contractor or any subcontractor, manufacturer, supplier, or distributor, which illustrate how specific portions of the work shall be fabricated and or installed.

Site Plan
a plan of a construction site showing the position and dimensions of the building to be erected and the dimensions and contours of the lot.

Space Plan
design of an interior space which divides it into rooms or areas.

Spacial Adjacencies
interrelationship of areas, their function, and aesthetics.

Specifications
definition and identification of standards to which materials must comply, materials themselves and their adjuncts, and methods of fabrication.

Systems Furniture
a collection of modular components designed to fit together in various ways to make up office work stations.

Tender
a proposal or bid for a contract to perform work, often on a form, completed by a contractor, giving estimated price and time to complete a contract.

Tone
the range of light and dark of any colour, and black and white.

Zoning
the control by a municipality of the use of land and buildings, the height and bulk of buildings, the density of population, the relation of a lot's building coverage to open space the size and location of yards and setbacks, and the provision of any ancillary facilities such as parking. Zoning, established through the adoption of a municipal ordinance, is the principal instrument in implementing a master plan.


Table of Contents

III. Generic Skills Standard

All graduates of Interior Design Programs must have achieved the thirteen generic skills learning outcomes listed on the following pages, in addition to achieving the vocational learning outcomes and meeting the general education requirement.

The Generic Skills Learning Outcomes

1. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

communicate clearly, concisely, and correctly in the written, spoken, and visual form that fulfills the purpose and meets the needs of audiences.

Explanation

Communicating in a clear, concise, and correct manner requires producing the written, spoken or visual material that best suits the situation. Graduates will have developed their ability to analyze their audiences to identify what is required and to match those needs with the means that is most appropriate. They will have produced material according to the style and conventions required, and they will have checked their products for accuracy and clarity. Finally, graduates will have used the tools available to them to create and correct their written, spoken, and visual messages.

Elements of the Performance

  • Plan and organize communications according to the purpose and audiences
  • Choose the format (e.g., memo, illustration, video, multimedia presentation, diagram) appropriate to the purpose
  • Incorporate the content that is meaningful and necessary
  • Produce material that conforms to the conventions of the chosen format
  • Use language and style suitable to the audience and purpose
  • Ensure that the material is free from mechanical errors
  • Use the computer technology that will enhance the production of materials
  • Evaluate communications and adjust for any errors in content, structure, style, and mechanics

2. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

reframe information, ideas, and concepts using the narrative, visual, numerical, and symbolic representations which demonstrate understanding.

Explanation

Responding to messages from many sources requires the ability to receive and to comprehend what has been received. One way to demonstrate that comprehension is to reframe, or restate in other forms, the original message. This requires graduates to have developed the skills to read, listen to, and observe messages contained within narrative and visual forms. It also requires the ability to construct unique narrative and visual representations that are consistent with the original messages.

Elements of the Performance

  • Develop and use strategies to read, listen, and observe effectively
  • Clarify what has been read, heard, and observed
  • Reproduce original information in other formats (e.g., written and spoken summaries; tables, figures, charts, diagrams, maps, drawings, photographs, and computer-generated graphics; terms represented by numbers; and values represented by letters or signs)
  • Use technology, where appropriate, to aid in reframing
  • Evaluate the representation for consistency of meaning with the original
  • Acknowledge the use of material from other sources according to the conventions of the medium used

3. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

apply a wide variety of mathematical techniques with the degree of accuracy required to solve problems and make decisions.

Explanation

Using mathematics effectively in everyday situations requires the ability to apply a wide variety of mathematical skills accurately. Graduates will have demonstrated their ability to apply the concepts of number and space to situations which include quantities, magnitudes, measurements, and ratios. They will have developed their ability to identify the need for mathematics, to apply mathematical techniques (concepts, conventions, strategies, and operations) and to check the results of their applications. This will require graduates to be flexible and creative and to be confident in their mathematical skills and abilities.

Elements of the Performance

  • Recognize situations that require mathematics
  • Assess potential mathematical strategies (including models, geometric representations or formulas, elementary algebraic equations, descriptive statistical methods, and mathematical reasoning) for suitability and effectiveness
  • Decide on the degree of accuracy required for answers
  • Estimate probable answers
  • Execute mathematical operations necessary to implement selected strategies
  • Use calculators or appropriate technological tools to perform mathematical operations accurately
  • Check for errors in numerical answers and the appropriate fit between problems and answers
  • Express answers clearly
  • Transfer the use of mathematical strategies from one situation to another

4. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

use a variety of computer hardware and software and other technological tools appropriate and necessary to the performance of tasks.

Explanation

Using computers and other technologies as tools to increase productivity and to enhance tasks requires graduates to have the confidence and ability to use the tools well. Graduates will have demonstrated the ability to recognize when computers and other technologies contribute to completing tasks, solving problems, performing research, and creating products. They will use the technological tool most appropriate to the task and use it accurately. Finally, they will have gained confidence in continuing to learn about and cope with new technologies in the future.

Elements of the Performance

  • Use basic operating system functions competently (e.g., load software, store, and retrieve data)
  • Determine which tasks can best be handled by computers and other technology
  • Select suitable software, equipment, and tools for the task
  • Use the software, equipment, and tools effectively, correctly, and ethically
  • Deal with equipment and software problems and errors in a logical and systematic manner
  • Transfer concepts, knowledge, and skills from one technology to another
  • Evaluate one’s own use of hardware, software, and technological tools

5. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

interact with others in groups or teams in ways that contribute to effective working relationships and the achievement of goals.

Explanation

Working in teams or groups in either a work or personal context requires the ability to assume responsibility for collective duties and decisions. It also requires interacting effectively with the members of the group. Therefore, in achieving this outcome, graduates will have demonstrated their ability to understand and complete the various tasks required of them as group members. They will also have demonstrated their ability to understand and respond to others.

Elements of the Performance

  • Identify the tasks to be completed
  • Establish strategies to accomplish the tasks
  • Identify roles for members of the team/group
  • Clarify one's own roles and fulfill them in a timely fashion
  • Treat other members of the group equitably and fairly
  • Contribute one's own ideas, opinions, and information while demonstrating respect for those of others
  • Employ techniques intended to bring about the resolution of any conflicts
  • Regularly assess the group's progress and interactions and make adjustments when necessary

6. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

evaluate her or his own thinking throughout the steps and processes used in problem solving and decision making.

Explanation

Solving a range of complex problems and dealing with a variety of tasks require the thinking skills and strategies that will allow graduates to identify what has to be done and to select and implement the most suitable approach. In applying thinking skills and strategies, graduates will have understood the limits as well as the potential of their own thought processes. As well, in attempting various strategies, they will have explored styles of thinking that may be new to them. This will allow graduates to understand the way they think and how they approach decisions and problems.

Elements of the Performance

  • Clarify the nature and extent of problems or required directions
  • Explore various thinking skills and strategies that could be used
  • Identify limits as well as the potential of one's own thought processes
  • Choose and apply thinking skills and strategies (e.g., inductive and deductive thinking; creative and intuitive thinking; inquiry; critical thinking; and reflection)
  • Evaluate results of the thinking skills and strategies used in problem solving and decision making
  • Appreciate the benefits of the use of alternative types of thinking

7. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

collect, analyze, and organize relevant and necessary information from a variety of sources.

Explanation

Making decisions and completing tasks often requires information that can be used as support. Graduates, therefore, must be able to access current, relevant, and useful information and to organize that information in understandable ways. In achieving this outcome, graduates will have developed and used strategies to locate and gather a wide range of information, most particularly through technological means. They will have learned how to select pertinent information and to sort it so that it can be displayed in useful formats like databases and spreadsheets. This information can then be used to support decisions and to assist in the completion of tasks.

Elements of the Performance

  • Identify the nature of the information required
  • Investigate sources of information (including people, text, databases, and the Internet)
  • Gather information from the most appropriate sources using various data collection techniques, including technology
  • Examine the information and select what is relevant, important, and useful
  • Employ a variety of techniques to organize the information (e.g., spreadsheets, databases, graphs, and charts)
  • Draw conclusions about how the information can be used
  • Evaluate the processes used
  • Cite sources according to the conventions of the medium used

8. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

evaluate the validity of arguments based on qualitative and quantitative information in order to accept or challenge the findings of others.

Explanation

With the wealth of numerical and non-numerical information available, graduates must be able to interpret, understand, and draw conclusions about what others have produced. Graduates will have used their mathematical abilities to question the validity of statistics and other numerical claims. Graduates also will have used their language and critical thinking skills to analyze the assumptions and evidence that others use to support more qualitative arguments and conclusions. As a result, graduates will have developed the ability to question and make decisions about what they read, hear, and observe.

Elements of the Performance

  • Identify conclusions and claims made by others
  • Detect any fallacies, biases, misrepresentations, and assumptions and judge their relevance to supporting arguments
  • Check for accuracy and credibility of claims or arguments
  • Be prepared to defend acceptance or rejection of claims or arguments

9. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

create innovative strategies and/or products that meet identified needs.

Explanation

Creating strategies and products that are original and innovative will require graduates to develop their creative thinking skills to find alternative ways to address situations. Graduates will have developed the confidence to use old information in new ways; to see unique relationships; and to practice the lateral, divergent, and intuitive thinking that will yield new approaches.

Elements of the Performance

  • Analyze needs
  • Generate creative ideas for strategies and products that will meet needs
  • Choose alternatives to pursue based on needs and criteria of projects/plans
  • Create strategies/products
  • Evaluate strategies/products according to meeting needs

10. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

manage the use of time and other resources to attain personal and/or project-related goals.

Explanation

Achieving task-related goals in their personal and professional lives requires graduates to use their time, money, space, and other, often limited, resources as efficiently as possible. Graduates will have developed their ability to plan and predict ways of achieving goals. They will have developed and used tools intended to assist in the process. Finally, they will have attempted to follow their plans and use the tools, assessing regularly how realistic the goals, plans, and processes are and adapting when it is necessary.

Elements of the Performance

  • Define reasonable and realistic goals
  • Use planning tools (e.g., budgets and schedules) to achieve goals
  • Monitor the process and goals and respond to changes
  • Use resources (e.g., money, space, and time) efficiently to accomplish tasks
  • Reevaluate goals and the use of resources and make appropriate adjustments

11. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

take responsibility for her or his own actions and decisions.

Explanation

Making decisions, taking positions, and completing tasks require graduates to be accountable for actions taken and to defend their convictions. Graduates will have demonstrated their ability to evaluate what they do and why they do it. They will have taken into consideration their individual values, beliefs, and opinions and the effects these have on their actions. Not only will graduates be able to justify their decisions, they will be able to advocate positively on behalf of themselves.

Elements of the Performance

  • Review the results of one's actions and decisions
  • Reflect on the processes and practices used
  • Identify any errors and make corrections
  • Identify successes for adaptation to other situations
  • Account for how one's own values and beliefs affect actions and decisions
  • Evaluate and act upon constructive feedback
  • Be prepared to defend decisions made and actions taken

12. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

adapt to new situations and demands by applying and/or updating her or his knowledge and skills.

Explanation

Transferring skills from one context to another enables graduates to be lifelong learners. Graduates will have developed the confidence to know that their current skills are applicable to a range of changing, novel, and unexpected situations. They will have demonstrated their ability to reflect on what they can do, match those skills to the new demands, and apply previous skills or develop the additional ones that will make them as effective in the new situations.

Elements of the Performance

  • Assess current skills, knowledge, and learning styles
  • Identify skills and knowledge required for new situations
  • Adapt current skills and knowledge to new situations
  • Identify new skills and knowledge required
  • Choose the most appropriate learning and working styles to acquire new skills and knowledge
  • Evaluate success of the processes and actual adaptations

13. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

represent her or his skills, knowledge, and experience realistically for personal and employment purposes.

Explanation

Preparing for changes in their personal and professional lives requires graduates to assess and present their accomplishments and abilities. In achieving this outcome, graduates will have developed their ability to reflect on what they have done and learned. They will also have summarized their abilities in ways that are attractive and useful to potential recipients. These ways may include portfolios and resumes. Finally, graduates will have developed the skills to present themselves and their accomplishments personally and with confidence.

Elements of the Performance

  • Summarize one's own skills, knowledge, and experience realistically
  • Choose formats (e.g., resume, portfolio, and interview) which best display skills, knowledge, and experiences according to the situations
  • Evaluate responses to the representations and make any adjustments

Synopsis of the Generic Skills Learning Outcomes

The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

  1. communicate clearly, concisely, and correctly in the written, spoken, and visual form that fulfills the purpose and meets the needs of audiences.
  2. reframe information, ideas, and concepts using the narrative, visual, numerical, and symbolic representations which demonstrate understanding.
  3. apply a wide variety of mathematical techniques with the degree of accuracy required to solve problems and make decisions
  4. use a variety of computer hardware and software and other technological tools appropriate and necessary to the performance of tasks.
  5. interact with others in groups or teams in ways that contribute to effective working relationships and the achievement of goals.
  6. evaluate her or his own thinking throughout the steps and processes used in problem solving and decision making.
  7. collect, analyze, and organize relevant and necessary information from a variety of sources.
  8. evaluate the validity of arguments based on qualitative and quantitative information in order to accept or challenge the findings of others.
  9. create innovative strategies and/or products that meet identified needs.
  10. manage the use of time and other resources to attain personal and/or project-related goals.
  11. take responsibility for her or his own actions and decisions.
  12. adapt to new situations and demands by applying and/or updating her or his knowledge and skills.
  13. represent her or his skills, knowledge, and experience realistically for personal and employment purposes.

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IV. General Education Standard

All graduates of Interior Design Programs Programs must have met the general education requirement described on the following pages, in addition to achieving the vocational and generic skills learning outcomes.

The General Education Requirement

The Government of Ontario has established that each college postsecondary program shall include a minimum of one three-hour-per-week general education course of approximately 45 instructional hours per semester. Learners should experience a breadth of goals through their general education studies; and, wherever possible, they should have the opportunity to exercise choice in the selection of their general education courses.

This general education requirement is an integral component of the Interior Design Program Standard, along with the vocational and generic skills learning outcomes.

The general education requirement shall be met consistent with the following guiding principles:

  1. General education in the colleges shall identify and deal with issues of societal concern in a manner relevant to the lives of students. General education courses shall be structured in such a way as to guide students through the historical context of such issues, their theoretical bases, and application to contemporary life.

  2. All general education courses offered in the colleges shall be designed to provide benefits to one or more of the three areas: learners' personal growth and enrichment, informed citizenship, and working life.

  3. An essential component of the mission of Ontario's colleges is the encouragement and support of continuous learning. This commitment to lifelong learning shall be reflected in each of the general education courses offered in the colleges.

General education appropriate for Ontario colleges is defined as those postsecondary learning experiences that enable learners to meet more effectively the societal challenges which they face in their community, family, and working life. General education in the colleges provides learners with insight into the enduring nature of the issues being addressed and into their particular relevance to today and the future. It is intended to encourage and support continuous learning. It is delivered as discrete courses which are designed to address one or more of the following goals and associated broad objectives established for general education:


Goals and Broad Objectives

1. Aesthetic Appreciation

understand beauty, form, taste, and the role of the arts in society

Broad Objectives

  • develop critical awareness of the arts in society
  • perceive and evaluate the role of the arts
  • heighten critical appreciation through development and application of personal and formal judgment factors

2. Civic Life

understand the meaning of freedoms, rights, and participation in community and public life

Broad Objectives

  • develop knowledge of the structure and function of governments in Canada: legislative, judicial, and administrative arms; roles of elected officials and public servants; and a personal awareness of citizen responsibility
  • develop historical understanding of major issues affecting Canadian politics and a critical awareness of related public policy
  • develop awareness of international issues and their effects, and the place of Canada in international communities
  • develop awareness of the history, significance, and organization of the voluntary sector in community life

3. Cultural Understanding

understand the cultural, social, ethnic, and linguistic diversity of Canada and the world

Broad Objectives

  • develop an understanding of cultural identity by linking personal history to broader cultural study
  • develop an understanding of the diversity of cultures and subcultures represented in Canadian society and of their interactions within the Canadian society
  • develop intercultural understanding through reasoned reflection on various cultures' responses to universal human issues

4. Personal Development

gain greater self-awareness, intellectual growth, well-being, and understanding of others

Broad Objectives

  • consider one's expectations and values and analyze their impact on personal goals
  • apply an understanding of the individual and human development to personal life and relationships
  • integrate the concept of well-being into one's lifestyle
  • understand oneself as a learner and articulate one's own learning style

5. Social Understanding

understand relationships among individuals and society

Broad Objectives

  • develop informed understanding of social organization and institutions and of ongoing issues in relationships between individuals, groups, and societies
  • develop informed understanding of social trends, social change, and social problems and of implications for social and personal response
  • develop informed understanding of contemporary social problems and issues

6. Understanding Science

appreciate the contribution of science to the development of civilization, human understanding, and potential

Broad Objectives

  • develop an understanding of the history, philosophy, contributions, perspectives, and limitations of the sciences
  • develop an understanding of the scientific method and its uses in measuring quantifiable entities and confirming laws of nature

7. Understanding Technology

understand the interrelationship between the development and use of technology and society and the ecosystem

Broad Objectives

  • relate implications of current transformations in technological knowledge and development to our physical and biological world
  • develop awareness of ethical positions on enduring issues regarding the place of the human species in the physical and biological world

8. Work and the Economy

understand the meaning, history, and organization of work; and working life challenges to the individual and society

Broad Objectives

  • set personal expectations for efficiency, effectiveness, ethics, and rewards and reconcile them with the changing work environment
  • apply knowledge of the organization and structure of work, its institutions, and history; and of social and cultural attitudes to work
  • develop an understanding of the changing nature of work and the economy

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