Business Administration – Marketing Program Standard

The approved program standard for all Business Administration-Marketing programs of instruction leading to an Ontario College Advanced Diploma delivered by Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (MTCU funding code 62900)

Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities, March 2005

© 2005, Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities

ISBN 0-7794-8392-8 (HTML)
ISBN 0-7794-8393-6 (PDF)
ISBN 0-7794-8391-X (Print)

This publication is also available as a PDF file (198 KB)


Acknowledgments

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction


  2. Vocational Standard


  3. Generic Employability Skills Standard


  4. General Education Standard


Acknowledgments

The Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities acknowledges with thanks the significant contribution of the many individuals and organizations who participated in the review of this program standard. In particular, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities would like to acknowledge the important roles of

  • All those who participated in the focus groups in Sudbury, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Kingston and Kitchener, and to the many individuals and organizations who participated in the mail-based consultations.

  • The coordinators of Business Administration and Business-Marketing Programs for their assistance throughout the project and the project officer who led the review of the vocational standard: Brian Provini, Conestoga College and Devon Galway, Algonquin College

I. Introduction

This document is the Program Standard for all Business Administration-Marketing programs of instruction leading to an Ontario College Advanced Diploma delivered by Ontario colleges of applied arts and technology (MTCU funding code 62900). This version replaces the one released in June 1997.

Development of System-Wide Program Standards

In 1993, the Government of Ontario initiated program standards development with the objectives of bringing a greater degree of consistency to college programming offered across the province, broadening the focus of college programs to ensure graduates have the skills to be flexible and to continue to learn and adapt, and providing public accountability for the quality and relevance of college programs.

The Colleges Branch of the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities has responsibility for the development, review, and approval of system-wide standards for programs of instruction at Ontario colleges of applied arts and technology.

Program Standards

Program standards apply to all similar programs of instruction offered by colleges across the province. Each program standard for a postsecondary program includes the following elements:

  • Vocational standard (the vocationally specific learning outcomes which apply to the program of instruction in question),

  • Generic employability skills standard (the generic skills learning outcomes which apply to all programs of instruction offering similar credentials), and

  • General education standard (the requirement for general education in postsecondary programs of instruction).

Collectively, these elements outline the essential skills and knowledge that a student must reliably demonstrate in order to graduate from the program.

Individual colleges of applied arts and technology offering the program of instruction determine the specific program structure, delivery methods, and other curriculum matters to be used in assisting students to achieve the outcomes articulated in the standard. Individual colleges also determine whether additional local learning outcomes will be required to reflect specific local needs and/or interests.

The Expression of Program Standards as Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes represent culminating demonstrations of learning and achievement. They are not simply a listing of discrete skills, nor broad statements of knowledge and comprehension. In addition, learning outcomes are interrelated and cannot be viewed in isolation of one another. As such, they should be viewed as a comprehensive whole. They describe performances that demonstrate that significant integrated learning by graduates of the program has been achieved and verified.

Expressing standards as learning outcomes ensures consistency in the outcomes for program graduates, while leaving to the discretion of individual colleges curriculum matters such as the specific program structure and delivery methods.

The Presentation of the Learning Outcomes

The learning outcome statement sets out the culminating demonstration of learning and achievement that the student must reliably demonstrate before graduation.

The elements of the performance for each outcome define and clarify the level and quality of performance necessary to meet the requirements of the learning outcome. However, it is the performance of the learning outcome itself on which students are evaluated. The elements are indicators of the means by which the student may proceed to satisfactory performance of the learning outcome. The elements do not stand alone but rather in reference to the learning outcome of which they form a part.

The Development of a Program Standard

In establishing the standards development initiative, the Government determined that all postsecondary programs of instruction should include vocational skills coupled with a broader set of essential skills. This combination is considered critical to ensuring that college graduates have the skills required to be successful both upon graduation from the college program and throughout their working and personal lives.

A program standard is developed through a broad consultation process involving a range of stakeholders with a direct interest in the program area, including employers, professional associations, universities, secondary schools, and program graduates working in the field, in addition to students, faculty, and administrators at the colleges themselves. It represents a consensus of participating stakeholders on the essential learning that all program graduates should have achieved.

Updating the Program Standard

The Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities will undertake regular reviews of the vocational learning outcomes for this program to ensure that the Business Administration-Marketing Program Standard remains appropriate and relevant to the needs of students and employers across the Province of Ontario. To confirm that this document is the most up-to-date release, contact the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities at the address or telephone number noted on the inside cover page.


Table of Contents


II. Vocational Standard

All graduates of Business Administration-Marketing programs of instruction must have achieved the seventeen vocational learning outcomes listed in the following pages, in addition to achieving the generic employability skills learning outcome and meeting the general education standard.

Preamble

Graduates of Business Administration – Marketing Programs carry out marketing functions within the Canadian and global business environment. Graduates have therefore demonstrated achievement of vocational learning outcomes which relate to both business in general and marketing in particular.

Graduates of programs leading to an Ontario College Advanced Diploma in Business Administration – Marketing are able to apply planning, assessment, analysis, communication, sales, teamwork, research, and financial analysis skills and employ other techniques to support the marketing activities of an organization. In addition, graduates are able to perform a number of more complex functions including applying principles of financial analysis and control, using analytical and evaluation skills to support a variety of management functions, and collaborating in the design of an organization's marketing plan, and participating in the preparation of an organization's business plan.

Graduates of Business Administration – Marketing Programs work in a broad range of employment settings in all sectors of business and industry, both domestic and international, including retailers, banks and other financial institutions, government offices, marketing consulting firms, advertising agencies, market research firms, service-based industries, manufacturers, non-profit organizations, self-employment, and small businesses.

There are opportunities for graduates to pursue further educational qualifications; through articulation agreements between the colleges and universities, graduates may be granted credits towards a degree. Students should contact individual colleges for further details of a college's articulation agreements with universities. In addition, graduates may also pursue professional designations and certifications within the industry.


Table of Contents


Synopsis of the Vocational Learning Outcomes
Business Administration-Marketing Programs

Please see the Glossary of Terms for definitions of words marked with an asterisk (*) in the sections below.

The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

  1. develop an integrated marketing communication strategy* for marketing* products*, concepts, goods, or services based on an identified target market.
  2. develop pricing strategies which take into account perceived value, competitive pressures, corporate objectives, and cost analysis*.
  3. develop strategies for the efficient and effective distribution of products*, concepts, goods, and services.
  4. determine strategies for developing new and modified products*, concepts, goods, and services that respond to evolving market needs.
  5. evaluate results of marketing* activities using criteria related to budgeted sales, costs, profits, and other appropriate criteria.
  6. formulate and prepare a marketing* plan including marketing* objectives, marketing mix*, marketing strategies*, budgetary considerations, and evaluation criteria.
  7. project the impact of a marketing* initiative using quantitative information.
  8. address marketing* problems and opportunities using a variety of strategies and tactics.
  9. develop strategies to establish effective working relationships with clients, customers*, consumers*, co-workers, supervisors, and others.
  10. communicate marketing* information persuasively and accurately in oral, written, and graphic* formats.
  11. evaluate the viability of marketing* products*, concepts, goods, or services in an international market or markets.
  12. conduct primary and secondary market research to provide information needed to make marketing* decisions.
  13. develop personal professional development strategies and plans to enhance leadership, management skills, and marketing* expertise.
  14. assist in the development of a business plan.
  15. apply the principles of business ethics and corporate social responsibility.
  16. use professional sales techniques to make a sale.
  17. adapt to and apply various and changing technologies, systems, and computer applications used in marketing* environments.

Note: The learning outcomes have been numbered as a point of reference; numbering does not imply prioritization, sequencing, nor weighting of significance.



Table of Contents


The Vocational Learning Outcomes

Please see the Glossary of Terms for definitions of words marked with an asterisk (*) in the sections below.

  1. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    develop an integrated marketing communication strategy* for marketing* products*, concepts, goods, or services based on an identified target market.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Select the appropriate promotional tools, methods, and elements for the marketing* of particular products, concepts, goods, or services
    • Employ a variety of creative strategies in marketing* projects and ensure the integration of all communications efforts
    • Evaluate data from such areas as past sales, buying habits, consumer* preferences, competitors' products, and market segmentation
    • Apply the concepts of promotion* for a variety of products*, concepts, goods, or services
    • Apply knowledge of segmentation in targeting customers
    • Incorporate evolving technologies (e.g. , Internet, multimedia) into the promotional plan
    • Recognize the diversity of the market place and the impact of ethnicity
    • Evaluate the effectiveness of integrated marketing communication strategies*
    • Apply knowledge of brand identity, brand equity, and brand management
    • Apply knowledge of sponsorships, events, and social marketing*
    • Determine the appropriate merchandising strategies for a product*

    * See glossary

  2. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    develop pricing strategies which take into account perceived value, competitive pressures, corporate objectives, and cost analysis*.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Consider the prices of competing products*, cost analysis*, and the nature of the competitive environment when establishing a price
    • Identify supply and demand as elements in price setting
    • Compile, evaluate, and use quantitative data in such areas as past sales, buying habits, consumer* preferences, competitors' products, market segmentation, and break-even analysis to develop pricing policies and strategies
    • Analyse how demographics and psychographics affect pricing
    • Apply the fundamental concepts of pricing for a variety of products*, goods, or services
    • Calculate break-even points, markups, margins, discounts, payback*, and return on investment
    • Identify the functions of a distribution channel and the impact on setting prices for a variety of products*, goods, and services
    • Evaluate the interrelationship between pricing decisions and organizational objectives and goals
    • Consider legal, social, and ethical issues when setting and managing prices
    • Take into account pricing strategies for different stages of the product lifecycle*
    • Apply knowledge of price differentiation using value pricing to competitive pricing strategies

    * See glossary

  3. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    develop strategies for the efficient and effective distribution of products*, concepts, goods, and services.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Identify distribution channels* and assess alternative approaches to distribution
    • Identify product availability as a source of competitive advantage
    • Recognize the role of internal and external partnerships within traditional and emerging channels of distribution
    • Monitor the effectiveness of channel partnerships
    • Recommend appropriate strategies to manage ongoing logistical problems and opportunities
    • Take into account the impact of technology on distribution channels (e.g. , e-commerce, etailing)
    • Apply knowledge of the role and objectives of supply chain management and its effect on distribution, supply, and customer value and satisfaction

    * See glossary

  4. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    determine strategies for developing new and modified products*, concepts, goods, and services that respond to evolving market needs.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Identify how the nature of products*, concepts, goods, or services affects and is affected by their lifecycles*
    • Employ knowledge of segmentation in targeting customers
    • Identify how new product development* and product modification affect an organization�s ability to remain competitive
    • Apply research techniques to the new product development* process
    • Contribute to new product development* and product modification
    • Recognize the impact of the changing marketing environment* including demographics and psychographics on the development of new products and services
    • Assess the impact of new technology on consumers�* need for new products*, concepts, goods, and services
    • Conduct market assessments, both qualitative and quantitative, and identify market opportunities

    * See glossary

  5. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    evaluate results of marketing* activities using criteria related to budgeted sales, costs, profits, and other appropriate criteria.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Identify types of budgets and their uses
    • Calculate key financial indicators such as sales volume, market share, profit, return on investment, and payback*
    • Contribute to cash flow analysis and cost analysis*
    • Determine customer* and consumer* attitude and behavioural change
    • Take into account the relationship between organizational goals and evaluation criteria
    • Compare actual results to all stated marketing* objectives
    • Make recommendations for future marketing* activities

    * See glossary

  6. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    formulate and prepare a marketing* plan including marketing* objectives, marketing mix*, marketing strategies*, budgetary considerations, and evaluation criteria.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Prepare an environmental scan* (e.g. , SWOT [strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats] analysis)
    • Use primary and secondary data* in the preparation of a marketing* plan
    • Evaluate the marketing environment*, market segmentation, and other variables
    • Apply knowledge of customer*/client behaviour in the design of a marketing* plan or strategy
    • Evaluate the impact of economic, technological, competitive, environmental, social, political, and cultural* aspects of society on marketing* initiatives
    • Outline an appropriate integrated marketing communication strategy* for the marketing* of particular products*, concepts, goods, or services
    • Develop a marketing* plan based on an integration of product, price, place, promotion*, process, physical environment, and people
    • Apply knowledge of supply chain management as it relates to marketing goals
    • Apply the principles of risk management to the development of a marketing* plan
    • Forecast sales and projected results
    • Identify how a marketing* plan fits into a business plan

    * See glossary

  7. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    project the impact of a marketing* initiative using quantitative information.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Assess the evolving major forces at work in the marketing environment* and their impact on business
    • Evaluate factors that have an impact on market share
    • Establish a market share target
    • Calculate a projected return on investment
    • Prepare a financial analysis for all marketing* initiatives
    • Apply research to financial decision making
    • Interpret results of past marketing* initiatives
    • Utilize spreadsheet software to support analysis

    * See glossary

  8. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    address marketing* problems and opportunities using a variety of strategies and tactics.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Employ a variety of strategies and tactics in marketing* initiatives
    • Apply knowledge of customer* and client behaviour in the design of a marketing* plan or strategy
    • Develop strategies to anticipate and address both favourable and unfavourable reactions to a particular approach
    • Define the problem, identify the cause(s), generate alternatives, evaluate alternatives, select alternative(s), implement the solution(s), and evaluate the results
    • Apply a variety of opportunity identification techniques to the business environment
    • Consider an entrepreneurial* approach in dealing with problems and capitalizing on opportunities

    * See glossary

  9. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    develop strategies to establish effective working relationships with clients, customers*, consumers*, co-workers, supervisors, and others.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Assess consumer*, customer*, and client needs
    • Determine ways to improve the organization's ability to meet consumer*, customer*, and client needs
    • Use appropriate information technologies to maintain accurate and timely information on all clients, customers*, and consumers*
    • Conduct all business in an ethical, responsible, and legal manner
    • Recommend strategies to enhance organizational loyalty
    • Recognize the importance and characteristics of excellent customer* service
    • Contribute to the development of a customer relationship management (CRM) strategy
    • Apply mentoring, coaching, networking, and team building skills
    • Collaborate with co-workers and supervisors
    • Use effective interpersonal skills in dealing with others.
    • Facilitate cooperative interaction among those involved in the design and implementation of marketing* projects

    * See glossary

  10. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    communicate marketing* information persuasively and accurately in oral, written, and graphic* formats.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Use presentation software, where appropriate, to improve the clarity and impact of a presentation
    • Present and defend marketing* plans to promote the successful operation of an enterprise
    • Speak and write clearly, concisely, persuasively, and logically
    • Use technology such as email, voice mail, and text messaging appropriately to communicate effectively
    • Prepare and present written and oral formal and informal reports to enhance the quality of service
    • Participate in the development of graphics, such as storyboards, desktop publishing, illustrations, art work, clip art, and web sites
    • Use professional and industry specific terminology effectively
    • Recognize the role of the marketing* communications department and marketing communications within an organization
    • Participate efficiently and effectively in meetings using professional protocols

    * See glossary

  11. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    evaluate the viability of marketing* products*, concepts, goods, or services in an international market or markets.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Recognize the impact of cultural* differences, political environments, technological developments, population demographics, and economic environments on international marketing* decisions
    • Apply the principles of marketing management* to issues of the international market
    • Identify distribution opportunities within the international market
    • Analyze the impact of economic, technological, competitive, environmental, social, political, geographic, and cultural* elements of society on marketing* initiatives
    • Participate in the development of an international marketing plan
    • Evaluate the various methods of entering the international market, such as exporting, importing, licensing, joint venturing, direct investing, franchising, or management contracting
    • List potential product adaptation to meet the needs of international markets
    • Recognize the impact of emerging technologies on international marketing* initiatives
    • Consider the impact of international trade agreements and organizations (e.g. , North American Free Trade Agreement [NAFTA], World Trade Organization [WTO])

    * See glossary

  12. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    conduct primary and secondary market research to provide information needed to make marketing* decisions.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Identify the decision(s) to be made
    • Identify the primary data* and the secondary data* required
    • Select appropriate data collection strategies (e.g. , focus groups, surveys, industry publications, Internet search engines)
    • Compile and analyze information based on primary and secondary market research
    • Incorporate the use of technology in conducting market research
    • Suggest appropriate courses of action based on the market research* information
    • Identify problems and opportunities
    • Apply knowledge of qualitative and quantitative techniques

    * See glossary

  13. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    develop personal professional development strategies and plans to enhance leadership, management skills, and marketing* expertise.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Solicit and use constructive feedback in the evaluation of personal knowledge and skills
    • Identify areas for ongoing growth and development
    • Incorporate various methods of increasing professional knowledge and skills into a professional development plan
    • Recognize the value of membership in professional associations and the importance of professional certifications and designations
    • Promote the importance of a commitment to life-long learning
    • Present oneself using a format which best identifies skills, knowledge, attributes, and experience (e.g. , resume, portfolio, interview, web page)
    • Remain current and up-to-date on trends and issues impacting on marketing*
    • Recognize the importance of entrepreneurial* initiative to career advancement

    * See glossary

  14. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    assist in the development of a business plan.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Identify the key components of a business plan
    • Ensure marketing* objectives are aligned with overall objectives
    • Utilize sales forecasting techniques
    • Recognize various sales and marketing strategies* and their effects on sales and profits and be able to recommend appropriate strategies to solve problems
    • Prepare a basic pro-forma financial statement using sound financial accounting practices
    • Take into account the major forces at work in the marketing environment* and how they affect business
    • Prepare a cost/benefit analysis for all marketing* initiatives
    • Calculate a return on investment
    • Assist in the development of the financial plan including break-even analysis, projected profit and loss, and projected cash flow

    * See glossary

  15. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    apply the principles of business ethics and corporate social responsibility.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Develop strategies which adhere to ethical principles and laws relating to business practices in general and to marketing* in particular
    • Establish professional and personal relationships which adhere to legal and ethical standards
    • Consider potential consequences to the environment* from all marketing* activities
    • Apply knowledge of conflict of interest
    • Develop policies and strategies to address ethical, moral, and legal issues
    • Identify the marketing* advantages of corporate social responsibility
    • Apply the principles of accepted business etiquette (e.g. , cultural*, regional, international)
    • Conduct all business in an ethical, responsible, and legal manner
    • Consider confidentiality, privacy, and risk issues

    * See glossary

  16. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    use professional sales techniques to make a sale.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Preplan, prepare, assess, and deliver a professional sales presentation
    • Use all available resources (e.g. , presentation technology, samples, hand outs, visuals) to improve the clarity and impact of a sales presentation
    • Qualify and approach the customer*
    • Clarify and analyze the customer*�s need or problem and establish a trust relationship
    • Present products*, concepts, goods, or services which address the need or problem of the customer*
    • Manage sales resistance
    • Close the sale and follow up after the sale
    • Foster an ongoing relationship with the customer* by applying the principles of relationship marketing*
    • Apply professional sales techniques to business-to-business and business-to-customer* situations
    • Recognize the importance of customer* satisfaction measurement

    * See glossary

  17. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    adapt to and apply various and changing technologies, systems, and computer applications used in marketing environments.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Apply computer skills to support the performance of a variety of functions in a marketing environment
    • Use appropriate software to record and compile financial information
    • Prepare correspondence, reports, presentations, and other print and electronic documents for marketing using appropriate software (e.g. , spread sheet, word processing, database, presentation, desktop publishing, web design)
    • Keep abreast of evolving technology and its application to marketing
    • Recognize the impact of technological changes on customer* and consumer* needs and demands
    • Apply knowledge of the application of technology to business (e.g. , e-commerce, etailing)

    * See glossar

Table of Contents

Glossary of Terms

Consumer
the person buying a product or service for individual consumption.

Cost Analysis
the process of determining the true cost of a marketing plan or campaign, usually determined in cost per person reached or cost per sale (taken from www.fluidcommunications.biz/marketing/marketing_definitions.htm on April 22, 2004).

Cultural
relating to the set of shared values and behaviours within a society.

Customer
an internal or external person, department or organization that purchases or receives products, concepts, goods and services (adapted from www.bridgefieldgroup.com/glos2.htm on February 25, 2004).

Direct Marketing
the interactive relationship between the marketer and the end user.

Distribution Channel
individuals or organizations that participate in the flow of goods or services from the producer to the consumer.

Entrepreneurship
the act of organizing, leading, and assuming the risks of a business, organization, or enterprise in a creative or innovative manner.

Environment
the physical, psychological, and social surroundings.

Environmental Scan
a study of the forces close to a company that affect its ability to serve its customers, as well as the larger demographic, economic, natural, technological, cultural, and political forces.

Graphic
depicted using drawings, photographs, or other visual illustrations.

Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy
a strategy that is designed to make all aspects of marketing communication such as advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing work together as a unified force, rather than permitting each to work in isolation (adapted on January 9, 2004).

Lifecycle
the stages of a product's sales and profits over its lifetime, consisting of development, introduction, growth, maturity and decline.

Marketing
the act of directing need-satisfying goods and services from a producer to a customer or client by anticipating and reacting to consumer needs.

Marketing Environment
external changing forces within the business environment including laws, regulations, political activities, societal pressures, economic conditions, and technological advances (adapted on February 27, 2004).

Marketing Management
the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of products, concepts, goods, and services to create mutually beneficial exchanges (adapted on February 26, 2004).

Marketing Mix
the set of marketing variables that an organization uses to achieve the desired results.

Marketing Research
the design, collection, analysis, and communication of, information related to the marketing function of an organization.

Marketing Strategy
the specific methods to be used by an organization to meet its marketing objectives. It may include target markets, product mix, and budgets.

Payback
the length of time it takes to recover the initial cost of a project, without regard to the time value of money (taken on February 24, 2004).

Primary Data
information collected specifically for a particular application or situation by surveying potential customers regarding preferences, knowledge, and buying habits.

Product
something which can be offered to satisfy a want or need.

Product Development
the development of new products and modifications to existing products resulting from the organization's research and development activities.

Promotion
the element of the marketing mix that an organization uses (1) to inform consumers about its products, the prices of its products, and how to obtain its products, (2) to persuade consumers to purchase its products, and (3) to remind consumers about the benefits associated with transacting business with the organization (taken on Feb. 20, 2004).

Promotion Mix
the mix of public relations, advertising, personal selling, direct marketing, and promotion a company uses to meet its marketing goals.

Relationship Marketing
the process of creating, maintaining, and enhancing strong, mutually beneficial relationships with customers (taken on May 20, 2004).

Secondary Data
information that has already been gathered for another purpose.

Social Marketing
the planning and implementation of programs designed to bring about social change using concepts from commercial marketing (taken on January 9, 2004).

Table of Contents


III. Generic Skills Standard

All graduates of Business Administration-Marketing programs of instruction must have achieved the thirteen generic employability skills learning outcomes listed on the following pages, in addition to achieving the vocational learning outcomes and meeting the general education standard. In the generic employability skills learning outcomes, an explanation of the outcome is also provided to help ensure clarity.


Synopsis of the Generic Employability Skills Learning Outcomes Business Administration-Marketing Programs

The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

  1. communicate clearly, concisely, and correctly in the written, spoken, and visual form that fulfills the purpose and meets the needs of the audiences.
  2. reframe information, ideas, and concepts using the narrative, visual, numerical, and symbolic representations which demonstrate understanding.
  3. apply a wide variety of mathematical techniques with the degree of accuracy required to solve problems and make decisions.
  4. use a variety of computer hardware and software and other technological tools appropriate and necessary to the performance of tasks.
  5. interact with others in groups or teams in ways that contribute to effective working relationships and the achievement of goals.
  6. evaluate her or his own thinking throughout the steps and processes used in problem solving and decision making.
  7. collect, analyze, and organize relevant and necessary information from a variety of sources.
  8. evaluate the validity of arguments based on qualitative and quantitative information in order to accept or challenge the findings of others.
  9. create innovative strategies and/or products that meet identified needs.
  10. manage the use of time and other resources to attain personal and/or project-related goals.
  11. take responsibility for her or his own actions and decisions.
  12. adapt to new situations and demands by applying and/or updating her or his knowledge and skills.
  13. represent her or his skills, knowledge, and experience realistically for personal and employment purposes.

Table of Contents

The Generic Employability Skills Learning Outcomes

  1. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    communicate clearly, concisely, and correctly in the written, spoken, and visual form that fulfills the purpose and meets the needs of the audiences.

    Explanation

    Communicating in a clear, concise, and correct manner requires producing the written, spoken, or visual material that best suits the situation. Graduates will have developed their ability to analyze their audiences to identify what is required and to match those needs with the means that is most appropriate. They will have produced material according to the style and conventions required, and they will have checked their products for accuracy and clarity. Finally, graduates will have used the tools available to them to create and correct their written, spoken, and visual messages.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Plan and organize communications according to the purpose and the audiences
    • Choose the format (e.g. , memo, illustration, video, multimedia presentation, diagram) appropriate to the purpose
    • Incorporate content that is meaningful and necessary
    • Produce material that conforms to the conventions of the chosen format
    • Use language and style suitable to the audience and purpose
    • Ensure that the material is free from mechanical errors
    • Use the computer technology that will enhance the production of materials
    • Evaluate communications and adjust for any errors in content, structure, style, and mechanics


  2. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    reframe information, ideas, and concepts using the narrative, visual, numerical, and symbolic representations which demonstrate understanding.

    Explanation

    Responding to messages from many sources requires the ability to receive and to comprehend what has been received. One way to demonstrate that comprehension is to reframe, or restate in other forms, the original message. This requires graduates to have developed the skills to read, listen to, and observe messages contained within narrative and visual form. It also requires the ability to construct unique narrative and visual representations that are consistent with the original messages.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Develop and use strategies to read, listen, and observe effectively
    • Clarify what has been read, heard, and observed
    • Reproduce original information in other formats (e.g. , written and spoken summaries; tables, figures, charts, diagrams, maps, drawings, photographs, and computer-generated graphics; terms represented by numbers; and values represented by letters or signs)
    • Use technology, where appropriate, to aid in reframing
    • Evaluate the representation for consistency of meaning with the original
    • Acknowledge the use of material from other sources according to the conventions of the medium used


  3. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    apply a wide variety of mathematical techniques with the degree of accuracy required to solve problems and make decisions.

    Explanation

    Using mathematics effectively in everyday situations requires the ability to apply a wide variety of mathematical skills accurately. Graduates will have demonstrated their ability to apply the concepts of number and space to situations which include quantities, magnitudes, measurements, and ratios. They will have developed their ability to identify the need for mathematics, to apply mathematical techniques (concepts, conventions, strategies, and operations) and to check the results of their applications. This will require graduates to be flexible and creative and to be confident in their mathematical skills and abilities.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Recognize situations that require mathematics
    • Assess potential mathematical strategies (including models, geometric representations or formulas, elementary algebraic equations, descriptive statistical methods, and mathematical reasoning) for suitability and effectiveness
    • Decide on the degree of accuracy required for answers
    • Estimate probable answers
    • Execute mathematical operations necessary to implement selected strategies
    • Use calculators or appropriate technological tools to perform mathematical operations accurately
    • Check for errors in numerical answers and the appropriate fit between problems and answers
    • Express answers clearly
    • Transfer the use of mathematical strategies from one situation to another


  4. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    use a variety of computer hardware and software and other technological tools appropriate and necessary to the performance of tasks.

    Explanation

    Using computers and other technologies as tools to increase productivity and to enhance tasks requires graduates to have the confidence and ability to use the tools well. Graduates will have demonstrated the ability to recognize when computers and other technologies contribute to completing tasks, solving problems, performing research, and creating products. They will use the technological tool most appropriate to the task and use it accurately. Finally, they will have gained confidence in continuing to learn about and cope with new technologies in the future.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Use basic operating system functions competently (e.g. , load software, store and retrieve data)
    • Determine which tasks can best be handled by computers and other technology
    • Select suitable software, equipment, and tools for the task
    • Use the software, equipment, and tools effectively, correctly, and ethically
    • Deal with equipment and software problems and errors in a logical and systematic manner
    • Transfer concepts, knowledge, and skills from one technology to another
    • Evaluate one�s own use of hardware, software, and technological tools


  5. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    interact with others in groups or teams in ways that contribute to effective working relationships and the achievement of goals.

    Explanation

    Working in teams or groups in either a work or personal context requires the ability to assume responsibility for collective duties and decisions. It also requires interacting effectively with the members of the group. Therefore, in achieving this outcome, graduates will have demonstrated their ability to understand and complete the various tasks required of them as group members. They will also have demonstrated their ability to understand and respond to others.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Identify the tasks to be completed
    • Establish strategies to accomplish the tasks
    • Identify roles for members of the team/group
    • Clarify one�s own roles and fulfill them in a timely fashion
    • Treat other members of the group equitably and fairly
    • Contribute one�s own ideas, opinions, and information while demonstrating respect for those of others
    • Employ techniques intended to bring about the resolution of any conflicts
    • Regularly assess the group�s progress and interactions and make adjustments when necessary


  6. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    evaluate her or his own thinking throughout the steps and processes used in problem solving and decision making.

    Explanation

    Solving a range of complex problems and dealing with a variety of tasks require the thinking skills and strategies that will allow graduates to identify what has to be done and to select and implement the most suitable approach. In applying thinking skills and strategies, graduates will have understood the limits as well as the potential of their own thought processes. As well, in attempting various strategies, they will have explored styles of thinking that may be new to them. This will allow graduates to understand the way they think and how they approach decisions and problems.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Clarify the nature and extent of problems or required directions
    • Explore various thinking skills and strategies that could be used
    • Identify limits as well as the potential of one�s own thought processes
    • Choose and apply thinking skills and strategies (e.g. , inductive and deductive thinking; creative and intuitive thinking; inquiry; critical thinking; and reflection)
    • Evaluate results of the thinking skills and strategies used in problem solving and decision making
    • Appreciate the benefits of the use of alternative types of thinking


  7. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    collect, analyze, and organize relevant and necessary information from a variety of sources.

    Explanation

    Making decisions and completing tasks often requires information that can be used as support. Graduates, therefore, must be able to access current, relevant, and useful information and to organize that information in understandable ways. In achieving this outcome, graduates will have developed and used strategies to locate and gather a wide range of information, most particularly through technological means. They will have learned how to select pertinent information and to sort it so that it can be displayed in useful formats like databases and spreadsheets. This information can then be used to support decisions and to assist in the completion of tasks.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Identify the nature of information required
    • Investigate sources of information (including people, text, databases, and the Internet)
    • Gather information from the most appropriate sources using various data collection techniques, including technology
    • Examine the information and select what is relevant, important, and useful
    • Employ a variety of techniques to organize the information (e.g. , spreadsheets, databases, graphs, charts)
    • Draw conclusions about how the information can be used
    • Evaluate the processes used
    • Cite sources according to the conventions of the medium used


  8. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    evaluate the validity of arguments based on qualitative and quantitative information in order to accept or challenge the findings of others.

    Explanation

    With the wealth of numerical and non-numerical information available, graduates must be able to interpret, understand, and draw conclusions about what others have produced. Graduates will have used their mathematical abilities to question the validity of statistics and other numerical claims. Graduates also will have used their language and critical thinking skills to analyze the assumptions and evidence that others use to support more qualitative arguments and conclusions. As a result, graduates will have developed the ability to question and make decisions about what they read, hear, and observe.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Identify conclusions and claims made by others
    • Detect any fallacies, biases, misrepresentations, and assumptions and judge their relevance to supporting arguments
    • Check for accuracy and credibility of claims or arguments
    • Be prepared to defend acceptance or rejection of claims or arguments


  9. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    create innovative strategies and/or products that meet identified needs.

    Explanation

    Creating strategies and products that are original and innovative will require graduates to develop their creative thinking skills to find alternative ways to address situations. Graduates will have developed the confidence to use old information in new ways; to see unique relationships; and to practice the lateral, divergent, and intuitive thinking that will yield new approaches.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Analyze needs
    • Generate creative ideas for strategies and products that will meet needs
    • Choose alternatives to pursue based on needs and criteria of projects/plans
    • Create strategies/products
    • Evaluate strategies/products according to meeting needs


  10. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    manage the use of time and other resources to attain personal and/or project-related goals.

    Explanation

    Achieving task-related goals in their personal and professional lives requires graduates to use their time, money, space, and other, often limited, resources as efficiently as possible. Graduates will have developed their ability to plan and predict ways of achieving goals. They will have developed and used tools intended to assist in the process. Finally, they will have attempted to follow their plans and use the tools, assessing regularly how realistic the goals, plans, and processes are and adapting when it is necessary.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Define reasonable and realistic goals
    • Use planning tools (e.g. , budgets, schedules) to achieve goals
    • Monitor the process and goals and respond to changes
    • Use resources (e.g. , money, space, time) efficiently to accomplish tasks
    • Re-evaluate goals and the use of resources and make appropriate adjustments


  11. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    take responsibility for her or his own actions and decisions.

    Explanation

    Making decisions, taking positions, and completing tasks require graduates to be accountable for actions taken and to defend their convictions. Graduates will have demonstrated their ability to evaluate what they do and why they do it. They will have taken into consideration their individual values, beliefs, and opinions and the effects these have on their actions. Not only will graduates be able to justify their decisions, they will be able to advocate positively on behalf of themselves.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Review the results of one�s actions and decisions
    • Reflect on the processes and practices used
    • Identify any errors and make corrections
    • Identify successes for adaptation to other situations
    • Account for how one�s own values and beliefs affect actions and decisions
    • Evaluate and act upon constructive feedback
    • Be prepared to defend decisions made and actions taken


  12. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    adapt to new situations and demands by applying and/or updating her or his knowledge and skills.

    Explanation

    Transferring skills from one context to another enables graduates to be lifelong learners. Graduates will have developed the confidence to know that their current skills are applicable to a range of changing, novel, and unexpected situations. They will have demonstrated their ability to reflect on what they can do, match those skills to the new demands, and apply previous skills or develop the additional ones that will make them as effective in the new situations.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Assess current skills, knowledge, and learning styles
    • Identify skills and knowledge required for new situations
    • Adapt current skills and knowledge to new situations
    • Identify new skills and knowledge required
    • Choose the most appropriate learning and working styles to acquire new skills and knowledge
    • Evaluate success of the processes and actual adaptations


  13. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

    represent her or his skills, knowledge, and experience realistically for personal and employment purposes.

    Explanation

    Preparing for changes in their personal and professional lives requires graduates to assess and present their accomplishments and abilities. In achieving this outcome, graduates will have developed their ability to reflect on what they have done and learned. They will also have summarized their abilities in ways that are attractive and useful to potential recipients. These ways may include portfolios and resumes. Finally, graduates will have developed the skills to present themselves and their accomplishments personally and with confidence.

    Elements of the Performance

    • Summarize one�s own skills, knowledge, and experience realistically
    • Choose formats (e.g. , resume, portfolio, interview) which best display skills, knowledge, and experiences according to the situations
    • Evaluate responses to the representations and make any adjustments



Table of Contents


IV. General Education Standard

All graduates of Business Administration-Marketing programs of instruction must have met the general education requirement described on the following pages, in addition to achieving the vocational and generic employability skills learning outcomes.

The General Education Requirement for Ontario College Diploma and Ontario College Advanced Diploma Programs

Graduates will have been engaged in learning that exposes them to at least one discipline outside their main field of study and increases their awareness of the society and culture in which they live and work. This will typically involve students taking three to five courses (or the equivalent) designed discretely from vocational learning opportunities. This learning would normally be delivered using a combination of required and elective processes.

The general education requirement is an integral component of the Business Administration-Marketing Program Standard, along with the vocational and generic employability skills learning outcomes.

The general education requirement is to be met consistent with the following guiding principles:

  1. General education in the colleges shall identify and deal with issues of societal concern in a manner relevant to the lives of students. General education courses are to be structured in such a way as to guide students through the historical context of such issues, their theoretical bases, and application to contemporary life.

  2. All general education courses offered in the colleges are to be designed to benefit one or more of the three aims: learners� personal growth and enrichment, informed citizenship, and working life.

  3. An essential component of the mission of Ontario�s colleges is the encouragement and support of continuous learning. This commitment to lifelong learning is to be reflected in each of the general education courses offered in the colleges.

General education appropriate for Ontario colleges is defined as those postsecondary learning experiences that enable learners to meet more effectively the societal challenges which they face in their community, family, and working life. General education in the colleges provides learners with insight into the enduring nature of the issues being addressed and into their particular relevance to today and the future. This education is intended to encourage and support continuous learning and is designed to address one or more of the following goals and associated broad objectives established for general education.


Goals and Broad Objectives

  1. Aesthetic Appreciation

    understand beauty, form, taste, and the role of the arts in society

    Board Objectives

    • develop critical awareness of arts in society
    • perceive and evaluate the role of the arts
    • heighten critical appreciation through development and application of personal and formal judgement factors


  2. Civic Life

    understand the meaning of freedoms, rights, and participation in community and public life

    Board Objectives

    • develop knowledge of the structure and function of governments in Canada: legislative, judicial, and administrative arms; roles of elected officials and public servants; and a personal awareness of citizen responsibility
    • develop historical understanding of major issues affecting Canadian politics and a critical awareness of related public policy
    • develop awareness of international issues and their effects, and the place of Canada in international communities
    • develop awareness of the history, significance, and organization of the voluntary sector in community life


  3. Cultural Understanding

    understand the cultural, social, ethnic, and linguistic diversity of Canada and the world

    Board Objectives

    • develop an understanding of cultural identity by linking personal history to broader cultural study
    • develop an understanding of the diversity of cultures and subcultures represented in Canadian society and of their interactions within the Canadian society
    • develop intercultural understanding through reasoned reflection on various cultures� responses to universal human issues


  4. Personal Development

    gain greater self-awareness, intellectual growth, well-being, and understanding of others

    Board Objectives

    • consider one�s expectations and values and analyze their impact on personal goals
    • apply an understanding of the individual and human development to personal life and relationships
    • integrate the concept of well-being into one�s lifestyle
    • understand oneself as a learner and articulate one�s own learning style


  5. Social Understanding

    understand relationships among individuals and society

    Board Objectives

    • develop informed understanding of social organization and institutions and of ongoing issues in relationships between individuals, groups, and societies
    • develop informed understanding of social trends, social change, and social problems and of implications for social and personal response
    • develop informed understanding of contemporary social problems and issues


  6. Understanding Science

    appreciate the contribution of science to the development of civilization, human understanding, and potential

    Board Objectives

    • develop an understanding of the history, philosophy, contributions, perspectives, and limitations of the sciences
    • develop an understanding of the scientific method and its uses in measuring quantifiable entities and confirming laws of nature


  7. Understanding Technology

    understand the interrelationship between the development and use of technology and society and the ecosystem

    Board Objectives

    • relate implications of current transformations in technological knowledge and development to our physical and biological world
    • develop awareness of ethical positions on enduring issues regarding the place of the human species in the physical and biological world


  8. Work and the Economy

    understand the meaning, history, and organization of work; and working life challenges to the individual and society

    Board Objectives

    • set personal expectations for efficiency, effectiveness, ethics, and rewards and reconcile them with the changing work environment
    • apply knowledge of the organization and structure of work, its institutions, and history; and of social and cultural attitudes to work
    • develop an understanding of the changing nature of work and the economy