Respiratory Therapy Program Standard

The approved program standard for Respiratory Therapy program of instruction leading to an Ontario College Advanced Diploma delivered by Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (MTCU funding code 61615)

Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development
August 2017

Acknowledgements

The Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development acknowledges with thanks the significant contribution of the many individuals and organizations who participated in the development of this program standard. In particular, the Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development would like to acknowledge the important roles of

  • all individuals and organizations who participated in the consultations;
  • the faculty, co-ordinators and deans of the Respiratory therapy (Ontario College Advanced Diploma) programs for their assistance throughout the project,
  • the project officers who led the development of the vocational standard, Christine Foster and Louise Campagna

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
Development of System-Wide Program Standards
Program Standards
The Expression of Program Standards as Vocational Learning Outcomes
The Presentation of the Vocational Learning Outcomes
The Development of a Program Standard
Updating the Program Standard
II. Vocational Standard
Preamble
Synopsis of the Vocational Learning Outcomes
The Vocational Learning Outcomes
Glossary
III. Essential Employability Skills
Context
Skill Categories
Application and Implementation
IV. General Education Requirement
Requirement
Purpose
Themes


I. Introduction

This document is the Program Standard for the Respiratory therapy program of instruction leading to an Ontario College Advanced Diploma delivered by Ontario colleges of applied arts and technology (MTCU funding code 61615).

Development of System-Wide Program Standards

In 1993, the Government of Ontario initiated program standards development with the objectives of bringing a greater degree of consistency to college programming offered across the province, broadening the focus of college programs to ensure graduates have the skills to be flexible and to continue to learn and adapt, and providing public accountability for the quality and relevance of college programs.

The Program Standards and Evaluation Unit of the Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development have responsibility for the development, review and approval of system-wide standards for programs of instruction at Ontario colleges of applied arts and technology.

Program Standards

Program standards apply to all similar programs of instruction offered by colleges across the province. Each program standard for a postsecondary program includes the following elements:

  • Vocational standard (the vocationally specific learning outcomes which apply to the program of instruction in question),
  • Essential employability skills (the essential employability skills learning outcomes which apply to all programs of instruction); and
  • General education requirement (the requirement for general education in postsecondary programs of instruction).

Collectively, these elements outline the essential skills and knowledge that a student must reliably demonstrate in order to graduate from the program.

Individual colleges of applied arts and technology offering the program of instruction determine the specific program structure, delivery methods and other curriculum matters to be used in assisting students to achieve the outcomes articulated in the standard. Individual colleges also determine whether additional local learning outcomes will be required to reflect specific local needs and/or interests.

The Expression of Program Standards as Vocational Learning Outcomes

Vocational learning outcomes represent culminating demonstrations of learning and achievement. They are not simply a listing of discrete skills, nor broad statements of knowledge and comprehension. In addition, vocational learning outcomes are interrelated and cannot be viewed in isolation of one another. As such, they should be viewed as a comprehensive whole. They describe performances that demonstrate that significant integrated learning by graduates of the program has been achieved and verified.

Expressing standards as vocational learning outcomes ensures consistency in the outcomes for program graduates, while leaving to the discretion of individual colleges, curriculum matters such as the specific program structure and delivery methods.

The Presentation of the Vocational Learning Outcomes

The vocational learning outcome statements set out the culminating demonstration of learning and achievement that the student must reliably demonstrate before graduation.

The elements of the performance for each outcome define and clarify the level and quality of performance necessary to meet the requirements of the vocational learning outcome. However, it is the performance of the vocational learning outcome itself on which students are evaluated. The elements of performance are indicators of the means by which the student may proceed to satisfactory performance of the vocational learning outcome. The elements of performance do not stand alone but rather in reference to the vocational learning outcome of which they form a part.

The Development of a Program Standard

In establishing the standards development initiative, the Government determined that all postsecondary programs of instruction should include vocational skills coupled with a broader set of essential skills. This combination is considered critical to ensuring that college graduates have the skills required to be successful both upon graduation from the college program and throughout their working and personal lives.

A program standard is developed through a broad consultation process involving a range of stakeholders with a direct interest in the program area, including employers, professional associations, universities, secondary schools and program graduates working in the field, in addition to students, faculty and administrators at the colleges themselves. It represents a consensus of participating stakeholders on the essential learning that all program graduates should have achieved.

Updating the Program Standard

The Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development will undertake regular reviews of the vocational learning outcomes for this program to ensure that the Respiratory therapy Program Standard remains appropriate and relevant to the needs of students and employers across the Province of Ontario. To confirm that this document is the most up-to-date release, please contact the Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development at the address or email address noted on the inside cover page.

Table of Contents


II.    Vocational Standard

All graduates of Respiratory therapy programs have achieved the eleven vocational learning outcomes (VLOs) listed in the following pages, in addition to achieving the essential employability outcomes and meeting the general education (GE) requirement.

Preamble

The Respiratory Therapy program provides students with knowledge, skills, attitudes and clinical judgement to provide optimal cardio-respiratory* care to diverse patients/clients* in a range of practice settings* including acute care and community environments. Successful completion of the program results in the conferring of an Ontario College Advanced Diploma.

To practice as a respiratory therapist in the province of Ontario, graduates must successfully complete all registration requirements, as set out by the College of Respiratory Therapists of Ontario (CRTO). The CRTO regulates the practice of respiratory therapy in Ontario in accordance with the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991 and the Respiratory Therapy Act, 1991.

As members of a self-regulatory profession, respiratory therapists practice in accordance with professional practice standards, codes of ethics, legislation and regulations, as well as with practice setting* policies and procedures. As reflective practitioners*, graduates engage in ongoing professional development activities to maintain and enhance professional competence in the respiratory therapy field.

Respiratory therapy is an evidence-based profession that is founded on health science related theories* and research*. Graduates establish and maintain therapeutic relationships and communicate in a culturally sensitive manner with patients/clients* across the lifespan and with their families, to support cardio-respiratory* health. Graduates employ critical-thinking, problem-solving and decision-making strategies to assess, plan, implement and evaluate safe, therapeutic cardio-respiratory* interventions with the goal of optimizing patient-centered, cardio-respiratory* outcomes. Graduates apply teaching and learning principles to support patient/client* goals of independence and self-management and to support learners in cardio-respiratory* health care.

As independent practitioners, in collaboration with patients/clients*, families and as members of health care teams, graduates demonstrate leadership, communication, group and interpersonal skills.

Respiratory therapists have career opportunities to work independently and collaboratively with a range of health professionals in a variety of practice settings*, such as hospitals, long-term care, home care, family health teams, hyperbaric clinics, diagnostic and sleep clinics. Graduates may find employment opportunities within private businesses or in independent practice requiring specific cardio-respiratory* knowledge and skills.

There may be opportunities for graduates to pursue further educational and professional qualifications through articulation agreements between the colleges, universities or professional organizations. Students should contact individual colleges, universities and professional associations for further information.

*See Glossary

Endnote: The Ontario Council on Articulation and Transfer (ONCAT) maintains the provincial postsecondary credit transfer portal, ONTransfer.

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Synopsis of the Vocational Learning Outcomes

Respiratory therapy (Ontario College Advanced Diploma)
The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

  1. provide cardio-respiratory* care in compliance with relevant legislation, professional standards, codes of ethics and practice setting* policies and procedures.
  2. use preventive measures that contribute to a culture of patient and employee health and safety within a range of practice settings*.
  3. establish and maintain therapeutic relationships and communicate in a culturally sensitive manner with diverse patients/clients* and their families to support cardio-respiratory* health.
  4. collaborate with patients/clients* and members of the inter-professional health care team to optimize cardio-respiratory* health and well-being.
  5. assess and interpret relevant diagnostic and patient information when treating patients/clients* who are experiencing a range of cardio-respiratory* conditions.
  6. develop patient’s/client’s* plan of care in collaboration with patients/clients* and health care team members by identifying priorities, establishing goals and determining interventions to support optimal cardio-respiratory* outcomes.
  7. select, implement, evaluate and modify therapeutic cardio-respiratory* interventions to provide evidence-based, patient-centered care in a range of practice settings*.
  8. develop, implement and evaluate cardio-respiratory* related learning plans in collaboration with patients/clients*, families and health care team members to support client independence and self-management.
  9. complete written and electronic documentation of patient/client* care to meet legal, organizational and professional requirements.
  10. read, interpret and participate in research* and use relevant evidence-based findings to inform and guide respiratory therapy practice.
  11. engage in reflective practice* and ongoing professional development activities to maintain and enhance competence in the field of respiratory therapy.

*See Glossary

Note: The learning outcomes have been numbered as a point of reference; numbering does not imply prioritization, sequencing, nor weighting of significance.


The Vocational Learning Outcomes

1. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

provide cardio-respiratory* care in compliance with relevant legislation, professional standards, codes of ethics and practice setting* policies and procedures.

Elements of the Performance

  • comply with the legislated responsibilities of self-regulated professions and the role that the regulatory body has in protecting the public.
  • practice in compliance with current standards and guidelines of the College of Respiratory Therapists of Ontario (CRTO).
  • act in accordance with the scope of practice of the respiratory therapist and refer to other professionals to provide out-of-scope requirements.
  • describe the role that professional associations have in promoting the profession.
  • support professional efforts directed toward achieving a healthier society and quality health care and services.
  • identify the effect that personal belief systems, values and assumptions have on respiratory practice.
  • conduct oneself ethically applying ethical decision-making frameworks to ensure ethical outcomes for patients\clients*.
  • work within own role and responsibilities as an independent practitioner and as a member of a team.
  • promote recognition of the profession and the role of its practitioners with the public and with members of other health professions.
  • act as a role model for the profession and support learners in practice settings.
  • participate in quality improvement processes within the practice setting.
  • conduct oneself in accordance with organizational vision, mission and core values.
  • advocate for and support access to equitable, quality, accountable and universal cardio-respiratory* care.
  • support, mentor and/or coach learners in cardio-respiratory* care including patients/clients*, families, students, colleagues and others.

*See Glossary

2. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

use preventive measures that contribute to a culture of patient and employee health and safety within a range of practice settings*.

Elements of the Performance

  • follow safety-related practices in keeping with the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1990, regulations, standards and organizational policies.
  • maintain a safe working environment for self and others by applying safety principles and by using protective devices and risk reduction strategies.
  • use routine precautions and follow current infection control best practices.
  • select and use personal protective equipment (PPE) and instruct others in correct usage.
  • handle and safely dispose of dangerous substances and materials in accordance with the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).
  • transport clients and respiratory care equipment safely.
  • ensure proper functioning of equipment by performing safety checks, required calibration, and where appropriate, basic troubleshooting and maintenance.
  • use medical equipment in accordance with Canadian Safety Association (CSA) standards.
  • verify that respiratory care equipment is cleaned, disinfected and/or sterilized in accordance with infection prevention standards.
  • use and store medical gases/liquids in accordance with Transport Canada regulations.
  • recognize, report, and where appropriate, intervene in situations which are potentially unsafe for patients/clients and others.
  • modify the environment to reduce or eliminate hazards.
  • participate in risk management assessment, processes and programs.
  • complete required health and safety reports in practice settings.
  • advocate for the reduction and elimination of environmental hazards in practice settings*.
  • promote an inclusive work environment free of harassment, violence and intolerance.

*See Glossary

3. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

establish and maintain therapeutic relationships and communicate in a culturally sensitive manner with diverse patients/clients* and their families to support cardio-respiratory* health.

Elements of the Performance

  • treat all patients/clients* and substitute decision makers* equitably and without bias regardless of personal or family beliefs, cultural practices or physical or mental abilities.
  • build therapeutic relationships based on empathy, respect, sincerity and trust.
  • communicate in a manner that is respectful of patient and family values and diversity.
  • respect the beliefs, values, role, rights and responsibilities of patients/clients* and health care team members.
  • interact with patients/clients*, colleagues and others in a professional manner.
  • maintain professional boundaries* within relationships with patients/clients* and colleagues.
  • communicate all significant changes in the patient/client* health status to appropriate individuals.
  • use a variety of written, oral, nonverbal and electronic communication techniques to communicate with patients/clients* and others.
  • protect and respect patient/client* privacy and confidentiality during all interactions.

*See Glossary

4. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

collaborate with patients/clients* and members of the inter-professional health care team to optimize cardio-respiratory* health and well-being.

Elements of the Performance

  • act, within the scope of practice, as a consultant to members of the health care team regarding patients/clients assessment findings and appropriate cardio-respiratory* care interventions.
  • promote recognition and understanding of the role of the profession and its members.
  • maintain effective relationships with patients/clients*, members of health care teams and the community.
  • act as a patient/client* advocate within the team.
  • include patients/clients* and families in decision making and planning related to their cardio-respiratory* health and well-being.
  • act independently within a team and collaboratively with other team members.
  • use effective critical thinking, problem-solving and decision-making skills when participating as a member of a health care team.
  • use conflict management and conflict resolution skills to mediate conflict within the health care team.
  • employ communication and interpersonal skills and apply the principles of group dynamics when participating as a health care team member.
  • contribute to health care teams' effective and efficient utilization of resources.
  • discuss effective resource management such as purchasing, inventory management, pricing, schedules and equipment maintenance.

*See Glossary

5. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

assess and interpret relevant diagnostic and patient information when treating patients/clients* who are experiencing a range of cardio-respiratory* conditions.

Elements of the Performance

  • collect, interpret, report and record assessment information and patient/client* status accurately and in a timely manner.
  • gather from a variety of resources, information relevant to patients/clients* health status and situation.
  • apply relevant health science related theories* to the assessment of cardio-respiratory* health.
  • apply specific knowledge of cardio-respiratory* function, pathophysiology associated with acute and chronic illnesses and associated risk factors when assessing patients/clients*.
  • interpret assessment findings noting variations, patterns or changes in individual patient’s/client’s* function.
  • select relevant cardio-respiratory* diagnostic and monitoring procedures and equipment to perform initial and ongoing assessments e.g., electrocardiograms, pulmonary function tests, spirometry, methacholine challenge testing and sleep diagnostic testing.
  • adapt assessment techniques to patients/clients* across the lifecycle i.e., neonate, child and adult.
  • adapt assessment strategies and techniques to meet the unique aspects of the situation and/or practice setting*.
  • use effective interview, communication and interpersonal strategies and techniques when assessing patients/clients*.
  • assess patients’/clients'* physical environments, available resources and support systems which may influence their cardio-respiratory* health.
  • ensure patient/client* privacy when performing assessments.
  • apply knowledge of growth and development throughout the life span when assessing patients/clients* and interpreting assessment findings.
  • protect patient/client* confidentiality when reporting and recording assessment findings.

*See Glossary

6. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

develop patient’s/client’s* plan of care in collaboration with patients/clients* and health care team members by identifying priorities, establishing goals and determining interventions to support optimal cardio-respiratory* outcomes.

Elements of the Performance

  • facilitate patient/client* participation in the development of the plan of care.
  • develop effective, patient-centered and outcomes-based cardio-respiratory* plans of care in collaboration with health care team members.
  • make safe clinical judgements by using relevant information, critical-thinking, problem-solving and decision-making strategies to develop and modify the patient/client* plan of care.
  • ensure that the goals of the plan of care are acceptable to the patient/client*.
  • prioritize and organize multiple cardio-respiratory* diagnostic, monitoring and therapeutic interventions.
  • select and sequence cardio-respiratory* interventions according to their effectiveness, efficiency, feasibility and suitability in relation to the priorities and goals of the plan of care.
  • consider principles of sustainability i.e., appropriate use of personnel, energy, time, costs, equipment and materials when determining cardio-respiratory* interventions.
  • evaluate in a comprehensive manner and in relation to patient/client* health outcomes, the effectiveness of cardio-respiratory* interventions.
  • participate in the development, evaluation and modification of the health care team's plans, services and programs.

*See Glossary

7. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

select, implement, evaluate and modify therapeutic cardio-respiratory* interventions to provide evidence-based, patient-centered care in a range of practice settings*.

Elements of the Performance

  • describe and evaluate the role that cardio-respiratory* care has in promoting clients’ health outcomes.
  • apply relevant knowledge of cardio-respiratory* anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology when determining cardio-respiratory* care for patients/clients*.
  • apply relevant cardio-respiratory* knowledge and health science related theories* and other scientific information, to explain rationale for interventions.
  • apply the principles of pharmacology and safe medication practice to administer medication topically, by inhalation, through artificial airways, by injection, intravenously and through natural body orifices.
  • select the most effective modality, correct procedure, and equipment to meet the patient’s/client’s* individual health outcomes.
  • perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocols according to current standards of the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada including, basic life support (BLS), adult advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS), pediatric advanced life support (PALS) and neonatal resuscitation program (NRP).
  • establish and maintain a patent airway.
  • perform oral, pharyngeal and tracheal suctioning.
  • administer oxygen and other therapeutic gas mixtures.
  • assist with deep breathing and coughing.
  • initiate and maintain alternative modes of ventilation.
  • assist with bronchoscopies.
  • perform and interpret pulmonary function testing.
  • assist with anaesthesia and the management of patient/client* homeostasis during anaesthesia and/or sedation.
  • adapt the selection and use of cardio-respiratory* interventions to meet the patient/client* developmental requirements throughout the life span.
  • monitor and evaluate patient outcomes in response to cardio-respiratory* interventions.

*See Glossary

8. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

develop, implement and evaluate cardio-respiratory* related learning plans in collaboration with patients/clients*, families and health care team members to support client independence and self-management.

Elements of the Performance

  • collaborate with patients/clients*, their families and members of the health care team to assess patients/clients'* learning needs.
  • apply learning principles to the development of patient-centred cardio-respiratory* learning plans and strategies.
  • adapt health related information and use appropriate media and learning strategies to meet patient’s/client’s* unique needs.
  • provide patient/client* with the information they require to make informed decisions about cardio-respiratory* health, well-being and lifestyle choices.
  • provide patients/clients* with opportunities to respond to and modify learning information.
  • respect patient’s/client’s* right to make decisions about their health, safety, well-being and lifestyle.
  • assess/reassess patient’s/client’s* and family’s acquisition of the essential information and/or skill.
  • prepare and deliver, to individuals and groups, presentations relating to cardio-respiratory* health.

*See Glossary

9. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

complete written and electronic documentation of patient/client* care to meet legal, organizational and professional requirements.

Elements of the Performance

  • use electronic and paper-based health information systems to plan, coordinate and document care.
  • document and maintain clear, concise, accurate and timely records using a variety of charting formats e.g., DART, SOAP.
  • use professional terminology and their abbreviations and symbols correctly in written, oral and electronic communication and documentation in accordance with organizational policies and professional standards.
  • maintain privacy and confidentiality of all patient/client* health information in accordance with Personal Health Information Protection Act, (2004) and organizational policies and procedures.
  • access and record patient/client* health information using written and electronic patient records management systems.
  • use computer systems and software including intranet, Internet, word processing, spreadsheets and data management systems to support respiratory therapist’s administrative functions within the organization.
  • complete all administrative reports accurately and in a timely fashion.
  • use communication technologies e.g., email, messaging and social media, in accordance with organizational guidelines and professional standards.

*See Glossary

10. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

read, interpret and participate in research* and use relevant evidence-based findings to inform and guide respiratory therapy practice.

Elements of the Performance

  • seek out, critically read and use relevant respiratory and health related research* to enhance practice in accordance with organizational and professional guidelines.
  • display a positive attitude about the role of research* in cardio-respiratory* care and about one’s own participation in research* studies.
  • contribute to evidence-based, patient-centered respiratory practice.
  • engage as appropriate, in outcomes-based research* relevant to respiratory care.
  • assist in the collection and interpretation of information related to research* problems, independently or as a member of a research* team.
  • identify opportunities for research*.
  • value the role of research* in advancing the profession and improving patient outcomes.

*See Glossary

11. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

engage in reflective practice* and ongoing professional development activities to maintain and enhance competence in the field of respiratory therapy.

Elements of the Performance

  • develop the knowledge, skill and attitudes needed to engage in reflective practice*.
  • develop awareness of personal strengths and areas needing improvement.
  • maintain a professional portfolio.
  • set personal goals and develop a plan for professional development.
  • participate in professional development and continuing education activities.
  • use constructive feedback, performance evaluation/appraisals and peer review to improve practice.
  • participate in professional networking.
  • remain current with emerging trends in cardio-respiratory* care and within the respiratory therapy field.

*See Glossary

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Glossary

Cardio-respiratory – A broad term that encompasses the profession-specific knowledge and skills that are relevant to the health and wellness of cardiac, vascular, pulmonary, respiratory, neuromuscular, sleep and related systems.

Health science related theories – The foundational knowledge in anatomy and physiology throughout the life span, and in other sciences such as pathophysiology, pharmacology, microbiology, physics, and chemistry. Health related theory may also include social sciences such as psychology, sociology, growth and development, social welfare, and other human service theory. (Adapted from the National Competency Framework for the Profession of Respiratory Therapy, 2016).

Patient/client – Those individuals who use Cardio-respiratory services; clients may also be a family or group who are the focus of respiratory practice. Patients/clients represent three principal patient/client groups; neonatal, pediatric and adult. (Adapted from College of Respiratory Therapists of Ontario (CRTO), 2010; and National Competency Framework for the Profession of Respiratory Therapy, 2016).

Practice settings – The environment in which respiratory services occur, including acute and critical care units in hospitals and community settings, such as home care, long-term care, complex care, family health teams, hyperbaric clinics, diagnostic and sleep laboratories.

Professional boundaries – These are the parameters in which the relationship between the RT and the patient/client should occur. The RT is in a position of power and so is responsible for managing issues of boundaries, even if a patient/clients behaviours seems to encourage boundary violations. The need to maintain professional boundaries apply to workplace relationships as well as the professional/patient relationship. (College of Respiratory Therapists of Ontario, 2010).

Reflective practice – The use of the critical thinking and analytical skills that are needed for continuous self-awareness about one's own practice and the development, implementation, and evaluation of plans to enhance professional practice.

Research – The acquisition by individuals of sufficient knowledge about scientific inquiry and research methodology to enable them to critically read scientific studies and to participate in research projects.

Substitute decision maker (SDM) – Individuals who are sometimes required to assist with decision-making for a patient/client in hospital who is considered incapable to make care or treatment decisions. The Health Care Consent Act contains a guide for identifying who the legally authorized SDM is, based on hierarchy of people. The highest-ranking person on the hierarchy who is willing and able to make decisions regarding health care for the patient/client becomes the SDM. (Health Care Consent Act, 1996).

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III.   Essential Employability Skills

All graduates of the Respiratory therapy program of instruction must have\ reliably demonstrated the essential employability skills learning outcomes listed on the following pages, in addition to achieving the vocational learning outcomes and meeting the general education requirement.

Context

Essential Employability Skills (EES) are skills that, regardless of a student’s program or discipline, are critical for success in the workplace, in day-to-day living and for lifelong learning.

The teaching and attainment of these EES for students in, and graduates from, Ontario’s colleges of applied arts and technology are anchored in a set of three fundamental assumptions:

  • these skills are important for every adult to function successfully in society today;
  • our colleges are well equipped and well positioned to prepare graduates with these skills;
  • these skills are equally valuable for all graduates, regardless of the level of their credential, whether they pursue a career path, or they pursue further education.

Skill Categories

To capture these skills, the following six categories define the essential areas where graduates must demonstrate skills and knowledge.

  • Communication
  • Numeracy
  • Critical Thinking & Problem Solving
  • Information Management
  • Interpersonal
  • Personal 

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Application and Implementation

In each of the six skill categories, there are a number of defining skills, or sub skills, identified to further articulate the requisite skills identified in the main skill categories. The following chart illustrates the relationship between the skill categories, the defining skills within the categories and learning outcomes to be achieved by graduates from all postsecondary programs of instruction that lead to an Ontario College credential.

EES may be embedded in General Education or vocational courses, or developed through discrete courses. However these skills are developed, all graduates with Ontario College credentials must be able to reliably demonstrate the essential skills required in each of the six categories.

Skill Category Defining Skills:
Skill areas to be demonstrated
by graduates:
Learning Outcomes: The levels of achievement required by graduates.
The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to:
Communication
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Speaking
  • Listening
  • Presenting
  • Visual literacy
  • communicate clearly, concisely and correctly in the written, spoken and visual form that fulfills the purpose and meets the needs of the audience.
  • respond to written, spoken or visual messages in a manner that ensures effective communication.
Numeracy
  • Understanding and applying mathematical concepts and reasoning
  • Analyzing and using numerical data
  • Conceptualizing
  • execute mathematical operations accurately.
Critical Thinking & Problem Solving
  • Analyzing
  • Synthesizing
  • Evaluating
  • Decision making
  • Creative and innovative thinking
  • apply a systematic approach to solve problems.
  • use a variety of thinking skills to anticipate and solve problems.
Information Management
  • Gathering and managing information
  • Selecting and using appropriate tools and technology for a task or a project
  • Computer literacy
  • Internet skills
  • locate, select, organize and document information using appropriate technology and information systems.
  • analyze, evaluate and apply relevant information from a variety of sources.
Interpersonal
  • Teamwork
  • Relationship management
  • Conflict resolution
  • Leadership
  • Networking
  • show respect for the diverse opinions, values, belief systems and contributions of others.
  • interact with others in groups or teams in ways that contribute to effective working relationships and the achievement of goals.
Personal
  • Managing self
  • Managing change and being flexible and adaptable
  • Engaging in reflective practices
  • Demonstrating personal responsibility
  • manage the use of time and other resources to complete projects.
  • take responsibility for one’s own actions, decisions and their consequences.

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IV.  General Education Requirement

All graduates of the Respiratory therapy program must have met the general education requirement described on the following pages, in addition to achieving the vocational and essential employability skills learning outcomes.

Requirement

The General Education Requirement for programs of instruction is stipulated in the Credentials Framework (Appendix A in the Minister’s Binding Policy Directive Framework for Programs of Instruction).

In programs of instruction leading to either an Ontario College Diploma or an Ontario College Advanced Diploma, it is required that graduates have been engaged in learning that exposes them to at least one discipline outside their main field of study and increases their awareness of the society and culture in which they live and work. This will typically be accomplished by students taking 3 to 5 courses (or the equivalent) designed discretely and separately from vocational learning opportunities.

This general education learning would normally be delivered using a combination of required and elective processes.

Purpose

The purpose of General Education in the Ontario college system is to contribute to the development of citizens who are conscious of the diversity, complexity and richness of the human experience; who are able to establish meaning through this consciousness; and who, as a result, are able to contribute thoughtfully, creatively and positively to the society in which they live and work.

General Education strengthens students’ essential employability skills, such as critical analysis, problem solving and communication, in the context of an exploration of topics with broad-based personal and/or societal importance.

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Themes

The themes listed below will be used to provide direction to colleges in the development and identification of courses that are designed to fulfil the General Education Requirement for programs of instructions.

Each theme provides a statement of Rationale and offers suggestions related to more specific topic areas that could be explored within each area. These suggestions are neither prescriptive nor exhaustive. They are included to provide guidance regarding the nature and scope of content that would be judged as meeting the intent and overall goals of General Education.

1. Arts in Society:

Rationale:
The capacity of a person to recognize and evaluate artistic and creative achievements is useful in many aspects of his/her life. Since artistic expression is a fundamentally human activity, which both reflects and anticipates developments in the larger culture, its study will enhance the student’s cultural and self-awareness.

Content:
Courses in this area should provide students with an understanding of the importance of visual and creative arts in human affairs, of the artist’s and writer’s perceptions of the world and the means by which those perceptions are translated into the language of literature and artistic expression. They will also provide an appreciation of the aesthetic values used in examining works of art and possibly, a direct experience in expressing perceptions in an artistic medium.

2. Civic Life:

Rationale:
In order for individuals to live responsibly and to reach their potential as individuals and as citizens of society, they need to understand the patterns of human relationships that underlie the orderly interactions of a society’s various structural units. Informed people will have knowledge of the meaning of civic life in relation to diverse communities at the local, national and global level and an awareness of international issues and the effects of these on Canada, as well as Canada’s place in the international community.

Content:
Courses in this area should provide students with an understanding of the meaning of freedoms, rights and participation in community and public life, in addition to a working knowledge of the structure and function of various levels of government (municipal, provincial, national) in a Canadian and/or in an international context. They may also provide an historical understanding of major political issues affecting relations between the various levels of government in Canada and their constituents.

3. Social and Cultural Understanding:

Rationale:
Knowledge of the patterns and precedents of the past provide the means for a person to gain an awareness of his or her place in contemporary culture and society. In addition to this awareness, students will acquire a sense of the main currents of their culture and that of other cultures over an extended period of time in order to link personal history to the broader study of culture.

Content:
Courses in this area are those that deal broadly with major social and cultural themes. These courses may also stress the nature and validity of historical evidence and the variety of historical interpretation of events. Courses will provide the students with a view and understanding of the impact of cultural, social, ethnic or linguistic characteristics.

4. Personal Understanding:

Rationale:
Educated people are equipped for life-long understanding and development of themselves as integrated physiological and psychological entities. They are aware of the ideal need to be fully functioning persons: mentally, physically, emotionally, socially, spiritually and vocationally.

Content:
Courses in this area will focus on understanding the individual: his or her evolution; situation; relationship with others; place in the environment and universe; achievements and problems; and his or her meaning and purpose. They will also allow students the opportunity to study institutionalized human social behaviour in a systematic way. Courses fulfilling this requirement may be oriented to the study of the individual within a variety of contexts.

5. Science and Technology:

Rationale:
Matter and energy are universal concepts in science, forming a basis for understanding the interactions that occur in living and non-living systems in our universe. Study in this area provides an understanding of the behaviour of matter that provides a foundation for further scientific study and the creation of broader understanding about natural phenomena.

Similarly, the various applications and developments in the area of technology have an increasing impact on all aspects of human endeavour and have numerous social, economic and philosophical implications. For example, the operation of computers to process data at high speed has invoked an interaction between machines and the human mind that is unique in human history. This and other technological developments have a powerful impact on how we deal with many of the complex questions in our society.

Content:
Courses in this area should stress scientific inquiry and deal with basic or fundamental questions of science rather than applied ones. They may be formulated from traditional basic courses in such areas of study as biology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geology or agriculture. As well, courses related to understanding the role and functions of computers (e.g., data management and information processing) and assorted computer-related technologies should be offered in a non-applied manner to provide students with an opportunity to explore the impact of these concepts and practices on their lives.

Table of Contents


Permission to Reproduce

Permission is hereby granted to the following institutions to reproduce this document, in whole or in part, in print or by electronic means, for the following specific purposes, subject to the conditions that follow.

  1. By an Ontario college of applied arts and technology for the purposes of implementation of the program standard within a college program, including for the purpose of informing students, potential students, program advisory committees or others about programs of study.
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Conditions:

  1. Every reproduction must be marked “© 2017, Queen’s Printer for Ontario” at the beginning of the document or any part of it that is reproduced.
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  4. The Ministry may revoke the permission to reproduce at any time.

For permission to copy this document, in whole or in part, for other purposes or by other institutions, please contact

Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Development
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Toronto, Ontario
M7A 1L2
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Inquiries regarding this specific program offered by colleges of applied arts and technology in Ontario should be directed to the relevant college.

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