Community and Justice Services Program Standard

The approved program standard for all Community and Justice Services programs of instruction leading to an Ontario College Diploma delivered by Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (MTCU funding code 50705). This version replaces the one titled Correctional Worker and released in January 1998.

Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universites, August 2005

© 2005, Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities

ISBN 0-7794-9105-X (Print)
ISBN 0-7794-9107-6 (PDF)
ISBN 0-7794-9106-8 (HTML)

This publication is also available as a PDF file (120 KB)


Acknowledgments

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction


  2. Vocational Standard


  3. Essential Employability Skills


  4. General Education Requirement


Acknowledgments

The Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities acknowledges with thanks the significant contribution of the many individuals and organizations who participated in the review of this program standard. In particular, the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities would like to acknowledge the important roles of

  • All those who participated in the focus groups in Kingston, Sudbury, and Toronto, and to the many individuals and organizations who participated in the mail-based consultations.

  • The coordinators of Correctional Worker Programs for their assistance throughout the project, and the project officers who led the review of the vocational standard: Brian Provini, Conestoga College, Lucie Bergeron, Collège Boréal, and Devon Galway, Algonquin College.

  • The joint working group of the College Committee of Vice-Presidents, Academic (CCVPA) and the General Education / Generic Skills coordinators group, which was established in March 2003, to re-articulate the generic skills learning outcomes (now the Essential Employability Skills) and the general education policy (now the General Education Requirement) in light of the Credentials Framework.

  • The Committee of the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC) and of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) for the use of its definition of Essential Employability Skills (EES).


I. Introduction

This document is the Program Standard for Community and Justice Services Programs delivered by Ontario colleges of applied arts and technology. The program standard applies to all programs of instruction offered under MTCU code 50705. This version replaces the one titled Correctional Worker and released in January 1998.

Development of System-Wide Program Standards

In 1993, the Government of Ontario initiated program standards development with the objectives of bringing a greater degree of consistency to college programming offered across the province, broadening the focus of college programs to ensure graduates have the skills to be flexible and to continue to learn and adapt, and providing public accountability for the quality and relevance of college programs.

The Colleges Branch of the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities has responsibility for the development, review, and approval of system-wide standards for programs of instruction at Ontario colleges of applied arts and technology.

Program Standards

Program standards apply to all similar programs of instruction offered by colleges across the province. Each program standard for a postsecondary program includes the following elements:

  • Vocational standard (the vocationally specific learning outcomes which apply to the program of instruction in question),

  • Essential employability skills (the essential employability skills learning outcomes which apply to all programs of instruction), and

  • General education requirement (the requirement for general education in postsecondary programs of instruction).

Collectively, these elements outline the essential skills and knowledge that a student must reliably demonstrate in order to graduate from the program.

Individual colleges of applied arts and technology offering the program of instruction determine the specific program structure, delivery methods, and other curriculum matters to be used in assisting students to achieve the outcomes articulated in the standard. Individual colleges also determine whether additional local leaning outcomes will be required to reflect specific local needs and/or interests.

The Expression of Program Standards as Learning Outcomes

Learning outcomes represent culminating demonstrations of learning and achievement. They are not simply a listing of discrete skills, nor broad statements of knowledge and comprehension. In addition, learning outcomes are interrelated and cannot be viewed in isolation of one another. As such, they should be viewed as a comprehensive whole. They describe performances that demonstrate that significant integrated learning by graduates of the program has been achieved and verified.

Expressing standards as learning outcomes ensures consistency in the outcomes for program graduates, while leaving to the discretion of individual colleges curriculum matters such as the specific program structure and delivery methods.

The Presentation of the Learning Outcomes

The learning outcome statement sets out the culminating demonstration of learning and achievement that the student must reliably demonstrate before graduation.

The elements of the performance for each outcome define and clarify the level and quality of performance necessary to meet the requirements of the learning outcome. However, it is the performance of the learning outcome itself on which students are evaluated. The elements are indicators of the means by which the student may proceed to satisfactory performance of the learning outcome. The elements do not stand alone but rather in reference to the learning outcome of which they form a part.

The Development of a Program Standard

In establishing the standards development initiative, the Government determined that all postsecondary programs of instruction should include vocational skills coupled with a broader set of essential skills. This combination is considered critical to ensuring that college graduates have the skills required to be successful both upon graduation from the college program and throughout their working and personal lives.

A program standard is developed through a broad consultation process involving a range of stakeholders with a direct interest in the program area, including employers, professional associations, universities, secondary schools, and program graduates working in the field, in addition to students, faculty, and administrators at the colleges themselves. It represents a consensus of participating stakeholders on the essential learning that all program graduates should have achieved.

Updating the Program Standard

The Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities will undertake regular reviews of the vocational learning outcomes for this program to ensure that the Community and Justice Services Program Standard remains appropriate and relevant to the needs of students and employers across the Province of Ontario. To confirm that this document is the most up-to-date release, contact the Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities at the address or telephone number noted on the inside cover page.

Table of Contents


II. Vocational Standard

All graduates of Community and Justice Services programs of instruction must have achieved the eight vocational learning outcomes listed in the following pages, in addition to achieving the essential employability skills learning outcomes and meeting the general education requirement.

Preamble

The Community and Justice Services Programs of Ontario's colleges of applied arts and technology are committed to delivering the highest calibre of training and education to prepare students for careers in the field of criminal justice with attention to intervention and re-integration. These careers may be based in youth facilities; federal and provincial correctional institutions; justice agencies; and community agencies, programs, and services. The vocational learning outcomes reflect the breadth of training required for graduates to function effectively at an entry level in a wide variety of work settings.

The nature of these environments and the diversity of clientele demand a highly trained work force able to intervene effectively using best practices, in order to ensure the protection of the public, and the safety of the community, staff, and clients. It is strongly recommended that field work or field placement be included as an integral part of preparing students for work in the field of criminal justice with attention to intervention and re-integration.

Graduates who wish to work in the field of criminal justice with attention to intervention and re-integration may be required to complete employer specific orientation and training, as well as other employment-related screening as part of their recruitment.


Synopsis of the Vocational Learning Outcomes
Community and Justice Services Programs

The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

  1. work and communicate in a manner consistent with professional ethics and practice, a respect for self, others, and relevant law and legislation.

  2. employ all relevant security techniques to ensure the protection of the public, and the security of the staff, and clients in institutional, residential, and community settings.

  3. intervene with clients, individually and in groups, in order to address and manage problems and to facilitate constructive behaviour change.

  4. observe, monitor, record, and assess client behaviour accurately, and respond appropriately in compliance with legal and organizational requirements.

  5. assist in the prevention and resolution of conflict, crisis, and emergency situations using methods consistent with legal requirements and organizational policy.

  6. establish and maintain constructive relationships with clients, staff, professionals, and the community.

  7. participate in program planning, implementation, assessment, and evaluation to meet the needs of clients, staff, and administration within the organizational environment.

  8. apply knowledge of social sciences concepts when interacting with clients, staff, professionals, and the public.

Note: The learning outcomes have been numbered as a point of reference; numbering does not imply prioritization, sequencing, nor weighting of significance.

Table of Contents


The Vocational Learning Outcomes

1. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

work and communicate in a manner consistent with professional ethics and practice, a respect for self, others, and relevant law and legislation.

Elements of the Performance

  • Communicate effectively, orally, in writing, and electronically, or in any other form with clients, clients' families, victims, staff, community agencies, community resources, and the public in a timely and ongoing manner keeping in mind the limitations of confidentiality and consistent with organizational and legislative policies
  • Maintain confidentiality of information as required by law, legislation, organizational policy, and professional ethics
  • Act in a manner which demonstrates respect for clients' rights as prescribed in legislation and policies
  • Recognize the limits of, and set appropriate boundaries for, client/staff relations
  • Treat clients and co-workers with respect, dignity and integrity, and act in a manner consistent with organizational and legislated policies and regulations regarding human rights, employment equity, workplace harassment, and discrimination
  • Solicit and use feedback regarding performance to carry out self-assessment
  • Employ constructive ways to recognize and manage any form (e.g., physical, mental, emotional) of personal stress
  • Abide by established policies, procedures, and codes of conduct of institutional, residential, and community settings
  • Provide a suitable role model for clients
  • Promote a positive work ethic and a work environment free of harassment and discrimination
  • Anticipate future uses of written documents during the composition and drafting of reports, and log books
  • Resist influences and pressures that go against the organizational values

2. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

employ all relevant security techniques to ensure the protection of the public, and the security of the staff, and clients in institutional, residential, and community settings.

Elements of the Performance

  • Perform security duties consistent with relevant organizational and legal requirements and practices
  • Practice personal health and safety precautions and implement organizational health and safety policies according to occupational health and safety standards
  • Help with the control, supervision, and recording of the use, storage, and dispensing of medication
  • Complete appropriate visitor documentation, and monitor behaviour in visiting areas
  • Gather, document, and report in a timely manner and according to agency policy and procedure all evidence pertaining to critical incidents and breaches of security
  • Apply the principles of dynamic security using the least restrictive measures to maintain a safe and secure environment within institutional, residential, and community settings
  • Use behaviour management techniques in a variety of situations according to the organizational policies and procedures of institutional, residential or community settings
  • Apply knowledge of the primary roles, functions, and legal responsibilities of front line and supervisory staff in relation to security duties in both community and institutional settings
  • Recognize the possible use of software to record client activities
  • Monitor the environment to ensure the operational needs are met for the protection of the public, and the security of staff and clients
  • Recognize the demands of working within a 24-hour-a-day, 7-days-a-week schedule and the challenges this presents to safety and security

3. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

intervene with clients, individually and in groups, in order to address and manage problems and to facilitate constructive behaviour change.

Elements of the Performance

  • Establish and maintain an effective professional rapport with the client
  • Conduct effective client interviews to elicit useful and appropriate information
  • Contribute to an atmosphere conducive to effective communication
  • Demonstrate respect for clients by using active listening and by providing consistent support and direction
  • Work out a plan of action with client
  • Facilitate constructive group interaction
  • Manage client behaviour by setting limits, using reinforcements, identifying and redirecting inappropriate behaviour, and taking corrective action when necessary
  • Access the community and criminal justice resources appropriate to client needs
  • Apply a variety of intervention techniques in a manner which demonstrates respect for clients' culture, rights, gender, and lifestyle
  • Manifest assertiveness, sincerity, and empathy in client interaction
  • Teach basic life skills to clients
  • Take into account client diversity including language, ethnicity, age, gender, sexual orientation, physical and mental ability when applying knowledge of law, legislation, policies, procedures, and interventions
  • Take into account the impact on clients of the basic organizational and structural elements of the judicial system
  • Apply knowledge of the intervention process as it pertains to case management, intervention techniques, and roles and responsibilities of case management staff
  • Apply appropriate boundaries when working with clients

4. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

observe, monitor, record, and assess client behaviour accurately, and respond appropriately in compliance with legal and organizational requirements.

Elements of the Performance

  • Identify client behaviours (e.g., mental health, addiction, learning disabilities) requiring any form of intervention and apply relevant intervention
  • Observe and accurately interpret client interactions in a variety of settings (e.g., institutional, residential, community)
  • Assess information from a variety of sources (e.g., police, probation and parole officers, community workers, personal observations) and apply relevant interventions
  • Report on client behaviour orally, in writing, and electronically, in an accurate and timely manner consistent with legal and organizational requirements (e.g., probation order, serious occurrence, daily logs)
  • Act within the intent of relevant legislation, policies, and procedures
  • Recognize and respond to the effects of medications and substances on client behaviour

5. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

assist in the prevention and resolution of conflict, crisis, and emergency situations using methods consistent with legal requirements and organizational policy.

Elements of the Performance

  • Recognize client behavioural changes which may lead to conflict, crisis, and emergency situations
  • Use appropriate behaviour management, conflict resolution, crisis intervention, suicide intervention, and security methods that take into account client diversity to prevent, contain, control, or diffuse a crisis
  • Request assistance from appropriate personnel when necessary
  • Perform CPR and first aid when necessary
  • Provide supports that take into account client and staff diversity (e.g., critical incident response for staff/clients, briefing and debriefing sessions)
  • Be aware of the value of certification in managing/de-escalating aggressive behaviour (e.g., Understanding and Managing Aggressive Behaviour - UMAB, Prevention and Management of Aggressive Behaviour - PMAB, Crisis Prevention and Intervention-CPI)
  • Recognize and respond to potential conflict, crisis, and emergency situations or events
  • Document appropriately the circumstances surrounding a crisis situation (e.g., logs, occurrence reports, incident reports)
  • Participate in and contribute to contingency planning exercises

6. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

establish and maintain constructive relationships with clients, staff, professionals, and the community.

Elements of the Performance

  • Communicate effectively, orally, in writing, and electronically, or in any other form with clients, clients' families, victims, staff, community agencies, and community resources in a timely and ongoing manner keeping in mind the limitations of confidentiality and consistent with organizational and legislative policies
  • Function effectively as a member of a multi-disciplinary team
  • Interact with clients and co-workers in a manner which demonstrates respect for the cultural, ethnic, and lifestyle diversity of the community
  • Take into account the impact of a variety of subcultures, including gangs, when interacting with both staff and clients
  • Establish and maintain appropriate lines of communication and facilitate constructive interactions between the client and family members
  • Recognize the effect of management and employee roles on working relationships
  • Apply basic knowledge of employee rights and responsibilities in a unionized and non-unionized workplace

7. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

participate in program planning, implementation, assessment, and evaluation to meet the needs of clients, staff, and administration within the organizational environment.

Elements of the Performance

  • Assist in identifying program needs on an individual and group level
  • Work cooperatively with staff and other professionals to establish program objectives\
  • Assume assigned role in implementing approved programs
  • Assist in identifying program evaluation criteria
  • Assist in identifying and obtaining resources needed for programs (e.g., community resources and services)
  • Provide feedback and take into account all feedback collected in order to contribute to the improvement of program design and delivery
  • Maintain supporting documentation related to the program's effectiveness for future reference

8. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to

apply knowledge of social sciences concepts when interacting with clients, staff, professionals, and the public.

Elements of the Performance

  • Apply basic principles of psychology that take into account the current best practices as well as the organization's policies and procedures, mission and value statements
  • Apply basic principles of sociology that take into account the current best practices as well as the organization's policies and procedures, mission and value statements
  • Apply basic principles of criminology that take into account the current best practices as well as the organization's policies and procedures, mission and value statements
  • Apply knowledge of relevant aspects of the history, philosophy, and diverse models of corrective action, detention, rehabilitation, and reintegration in Canada
  • Apply knowledge of victimology to the new practices of restorative justice

Table of Contents


III. Essential Employability Skills

All graduates of Community and Justice Services Programs must have reliably demonstrated the essential employability skills learning outcomes listed on the following pages, in addition to achieving the vocational learning outcomes and meeting the general education requirement.

Context

Essential Employability Skills (EES) are skills that, regardless of a student's program or discipline, are critical for success in the workplace, in day-to-day living, and for lifelong learning.

The teaching and attainment of these EES for students in, and graduates from, Ontario's colleges of applied arts and technology are anchored in a set of three fundamental assumptions:

  • These skills are important for every adult to function successfully in society today.
  • Our colleges are well equipped and well positioned to prepare graduates with these skills.
  • These skills are equally valuable for all graduates, regardless of the level of their credential, whether they pursue a career path, or they pursue further education.

Skill Categories

To capture these skills, the following six categories define the essential areas where graduates must demonstrate skills and knowledge.

  • Communication
  • Numeracy
  • Critical Thinking & Problem Solving
  • Information Management
  • Interpersonal
  • Personal

Application / Implementation

In each of the six skill categories, there are a number of defining skills, or sub skills, identified to further articulate the requisite skills identified in the main skill categories. The following chart illustrates the relationship between the skill categories, the defining skills within the categories, and learning outcomes to be achieved by graduates from all postsecondary programs of instruction that lead to an Ontario College credential.

EES may be embedded in General Education or vocational courses, or developed through discrete courses. However these skills are developed, all graduates with Ontario College credentials must be able to reliably demonstrate the essential skills required in each of the six categories.


III. Essential Employability Skills

All graduates of Community and Justice Services Programs must have reliably demonstrated the essential employability skills learning outcomes listed on the following pages, in addition to achieving the vocational learning outcomes and meeting the general education requirement.

Context

Essential Employability Skills (EES) are skills that, regardless of a student's program or discipline, are critical for success in the workplace, in day-to-day living, and for lifelong learning.

The teaching and attainment of these EES for students in, and graduates from, Ontario's colleges of applied arts and technology are anchored in a set of three fundamental assumptions:

  • These skills are important for every adult to function successfully in society today.
  • Our colleges are well equipped and well positioned to prepare graduates with these skills.
  • These skills are equally valuable for all graduates, regardless of the level of their credential, whether they pursue a career path, or they pursue further education.

Skill Categories

To capture these skills, the following six categories define the essential areas where graduates must demonstrate skills and knowledge.

  • Communication
  • Numeracy
  • Critical Thinking & Problem Solving
  • Information Management
  • Interpersonal
  • Personal

Application / Implementation

In each of the six skill categories, there are a number of defining skills, or sub skills, identified to further articulate the requisite skills identified in the main skill categories. The following chart illustrates the relationship between the skill categories, the defining skills within the categories, and learning outcomes to be achieved by graduates from all postsecondary programs of instruction that lead to an Ontario College credential.

EES may be embedded in General Education or vocational courses, or developed through discrete courses. However these skills are developed, all graduates with Ontario College credentials must be able to reliably demonstrate the essential skills required in each of the six categories.

SKILL CATEGORY DEFINING SKILLS: Skill areas to be demonstrated by graduates: LEARNING OUTCOMES: The levels of achievement required by graduated. The graduate has reliably demonstrated the ability to:
COMMUNICATION
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Speaking
  • Listening
  • Presenting
  • Visual literacy
  1. communicate clearly, concisely and correctly in the written, spoken, and visual form that fulfills the purpose and meets the needs of the audience.
  2. respond to written, spoken, or visual messages in a manner that ensures effective communication.
NUMERACY
  • Understanding and applying mathematical concepts and reasoning
  • Analyzing and using numerical data
  • Conceptualizing
  1. execute mathematical operations accurately.
CRITICAL THINKING & PROBLEM SOLVING
  • Analysing
  • Synthesising
  • Evaluating
  • Decision making
  • Creative and innovative thinking
  1. apply a systematic approach to solve problems.
  2. use a variety of thinking skills to anticipate and solve problems.
INFORMATION MANAGEMENT
  • Gathering and managing information
  • Selecting and using appropriate tools and technology for a task or a project
  • Computer literacy
  • Internet skills
  1. locate, select, organize, and document information using appropriate technology and information systems.
  2. analyze, evaluate, and apply relevant information from a variety of sources.
INTERPERSONAL
  • Team work
  • Relationship management
  • Conflict resolution
  • Leadership
  • Networking
  1. show respect for the diverse opinions, values, belief systems, and contributions of others.
  2. interact with others in groups or teams in ways that contribute to effective working relationships and the achievement of goals.
PERSONAL
  • Managing self
  • Managing change and being flexible and adaptable
  • Engaging in reflective practices
  • Demonstrating personal responsibility
  1. manage the use of time and other resources to complete projects.
  2. take responsibility for one's own actions, decisions, and consequences.

Table of Contents

IV. General Education Requirement

All graduates of Community and Justice Services programs must have met the general education requirement described on the following pages, in addition to achieving the vocational and essential employability skills learning outcomes.

Requirement

The General Education Requirement for programs of instruction is stipulated in the Credentials Framework (Appendix A in the Minister's Binding Policy Directive Framework for Programs of Instruction).

While the inclusion of General Education is locally determined for programs of instruction leading to either a college certificate or an Ontario College Certificate, it is recommended that graduates of the Ontario College Certificate programs have been engaged in learning that incorporates some breadth beyond the vocational field of study.

In programs of instruction leading to either an Ontario College Diploma or an Ontario College Advanced Diploma, it is required that graduates have been engaged in learning that exposes them to at least one discipline outside their main field of study, and increases their awareness of the society and culture in which they live and work. This will typically be accomplished by students taking 3 to 5 courses (or the equivalent) designed discretely and separately from vocational learning opportunities.

This general education learning would normally be delivered using a combination of required and elective processes.

Purpose

The purpose of General Education in the Ontario college system is to contribute to the development of citizens who are conscious of the diversity, complexity, and richness of the human experience; who are able to establish meaning through this consciousness; and, who, as a result, are able to contribute thoughtfully, creatively, and positively to the society in which they live and work.

General Education strengthens student's essential employability skills, such as critical analysis, problem solving, and communication, in the context of an exploration of topics with broad-based personal and / or societal importance.

Themes

The themes listed below will be used to provide direction to colleges in the development and identification of courses that are designed to fulfil the General Education Requirement for programs of instructions.

Each theme provides a statement of Rationale and offers suggestions related to more specific topic areas that could be explored within each area. These suggestions are neither prescriptive nor exhaustive. They are included to provide guidance regarding the nature and scope of content that would be judged as meeting the intent and overall goals of General Education.

1. Arts in Society:

Rationale:
The capacity of a person to recognize and evaluate artistic and creative achievements is useful in many aspects of his/her life. Since artistic expression is a fundamentally human activity, which both reflects and anticipates developments in the larger culture, its study will enhance the student's cultural and self-awareness.

Content:
Courses in this area should provide students with an understanding of the importance of visual and creative arts in human affairs, of the artist's and writer's perceptions of the world and the means by which those perceptions are translated into the language of literature and artistic expression. They will also provide an appreciation of the aesthetic values used in examining works of art and possibly, a direct experience in expressing perceptions in an artistic medium.

2. Civic Life

Rationale:
In order for individuals to live responsibly and to reach their potential as individuals and as citizens of society, they need to understand the patterns of human relationships that underlie the orderly interactions of a society's various structural units. Informed people will have knowledge of the meaning of civic life in relation to diverse communities at the local, national, and global level, and an awareness of international issues and the effects of these on Canada, and Canada's place in the international community.

Content:
Courses in this area should provide students with an understanding of the meaning of freedoms, rights, and participation in community and public life, in addition to a working knowledge of the structure and function of various levels of government (municipal, provincial, national) in Canada and/or in an international context. They may also provide an historical understanding of major political issues affecting relations between the various levels of government in Canada and their constituents.

3. Social and Cultural Understanding:

Rationale:
Knowledge of the patterns and precedents of the past provide the means for a person to gain an awareness of his or her place in contemporary culture and society. In addition to this awareness, students will acquire a sense of the main currents of their culture and that of other cultures over an extended period of time in order to link personal history to the broader study of culture.

Content:
Courses in this area are those that deal broadly with major social and cultural themes. These courses may also stress the nature and validity of historical evidence and the variety of historical interpretation of events. Courses will provide the students with a view and understanding of the impact of cultural, social, ethnic, or linguistic characteristics.

4. Personal Understanding:

Rationale:
Educated people are equipped for life-long understanding and development of themselves as integrated physiological and psychological entities. They are aware of the ideal need to be fully functioning persons: mentally, physically, emotionally, socially, spiritually, and vocationally.

Content:
Courses in this area will focus on understanding the individual: his or her evolution; situation; relationship with others; place in the environment and universe; achievements and problems; and his or her meaning and purpose. They will also allow students the opportunity to study institutionalized human social behaviour in a systematic way. Courses fulfilling this requirement may be oriented to the study of the individual within a variety of contexts.

5. Science and Technology:

Rationale:
Matter and energy are universal concepts in science, forming a basis for understanding the interactions that occur in living and non-living systems in our universe. Study in this area provides an understanding of the behaviour of matter that provides a foundation for further scientific study and the creation of broader understanding about natural phenomena.

Similarly, the various applications and developments in the area of technology have an increasing impact on all aspects of human endeavour and have numerous social, economic, and philosophical implications. For example, the operation of computers to process data at high speed has invoked an interaction between machines and the human mind that is unique in human history. This development and other technological developments have a powerful impact on how we deal with many of the complex questions in our society.

Content:
Courses in this area should stress scientific inquiry and deal with basic or fundamental questions of science rather than applied ones. They may be formulated from traditional basic courses in such areas of study as biology, chemistry, physics, astronomy, geology, or agriculture. As well, courses related to understanding the role and functions of computers (e.g., data management and information processing), and assorted computer-related technologies, should be offered in a non-applied manner to provide students with an opportunity to explore the impact of these concepts and practices on their lives.