Ontario Qualifications Framework (OQF)

10 – Baccalaureate/Bachelor's Degree


The qualification categories distinguish between levels of knowledge based on a continuum ranging from the mastery of particular, established bodies of knowledge and skills to levels at the frontiers of knowledge where new knowledge is created and established assumptions and methods are challenged. Each qualification may be seen as a reference point along that continuum. The descriptions of each qualification outline its purpose, typical admission requirements and typical duration.

Overall Program Design and Outcome Emphasis
Programs provide some broad knowledge and conceptual sophistication, including specialized knowledge in at least one discipline or field.

Preparation for Employment and Further Study
For some second-entry professional degree programs, employment in a variety of fields, or advanced entry into an honours or specialist program of study in the field.

Typical Duration
Six to eight semesters in duration (normally 90 to 120 credits, or the equivalent).

Admission Requirements
Ontario Secondary School Diploma or equivalent, six university or university/college courses at the Grade 12 level, a minimum average set by the institution and additional requirements as programs require.

Ontario public university/consent holder pursuant to Post-secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act, 2000.

Indigenous Institute

Qualification Awarded
Baccalaureate/Bachelor's Degree


This section outlines the generic competencies that the holder of each qualification is expected to be able to demonstrate, with a focus on knowledge and skills transferable to the workplace or useful for further study. The descriptors indicate the different categories of competencies, which vary in nature and degree depending on the qualification. The capacity to work creatively and autonomously is required at all levels but in contexts that range from fixed routines to those characterized by ambiguity and uncertainty.

Depth and Breadth of Knowledge

  1. A general knowledge and understanding of many key concepts, methodologies, theoretical approaches and assumptions in a discipline;
  2. A broad understanding of some of the major fields in a discipline, including, where appropriate, from an interdisciplinary perspective, and how the fields may intersect with fields in related disciplines;
  3. An ability to gather, review, evaluate and interpret information relevant to one or more of the major fields in a discipline;
  4. Some detailed knowledge in an area of the discipline;
  5. Critical thinking and analytical skills inside and outside the discipline;
  6. The ability to apply learning from one or more areas.

Conceptual & Methodological Awareness/ Research and Scholarship
An understanding of methods of enquiry or creative activity, or both, in their primary area of study that enables the student to:

  1. Evaluate the appropriateness of different approaches to solving problems using well established ideas and techniques;
  2. Devise and sustain arguments or solve problems using these methods.

Communication Skills
The ability to communicate the results of their study/work accurately and reliably, orally and in writing, to non-specialist audiences using structured and coherent arguments.

Application of Knowledge

  1. The ability to review, present, and interpret quantitative and qualitative information to:
    1. develop lines of argument;
    2. make sound judgments in accordance with the major theories, concepts and methods of the subject(s) of study;
  2. The ability to use a range of established techniques to:
    1. analyse information;
    2. evaluate the appropriateness of different approaches to solving problems related to their area(s) of study;
    3. propose solutions;
  3. The ability to make critical use of scholarly reviews and primary sources.

Professional Capacity/Autonomy

  1. The qualities and transferable skills necessary for further study, employment, community involvement and other activities requiring:
    1. the exercise of personal responsibility and decision-making;
    2. working effectively with others;
  2. The ability to identify and address their own learning needs in changing circumstances and to select an appropriate program of further study;
  3. Behaviour consistent with academic integrity and social responsibility.

Awareness of Limits of Knowledge
An understanding of the limits to their own knowledge and how this might influence their analyses and interpretations.